Victor and Gwendolyn Beinfield Professor of History
Ph.D., Columbia University
Field of Specialty
Modern Russia and Modern Germany; history of globalization, religion
Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel Center for the Humanities 108
Gregory L. Freeze (Ph.D. Columbia University 1972) is the Victor and Gwendolyn Beinfield Professor of History at Brandeis University. His primary teaching interests are modern Russian history, with a particular focus on religious and social history. As a student of the "new social history" of the 1970s, Freeze initially focused his research on the parish clergy--an important segment of Russian society, yet totally ignored by prerevolutionary, Soviet, and Western scholarship. That research led to two archivally-driven monographs, one on the formation of the clergy as a caste in the eighteenth century, and a second on attempts to transform that caste into a new professional class of pastors in the nineteenth century. In the 1980s, however, the "new cultural history"--shifting focus from class to culture--opened new perspectives for historical research, and this new approach had a strong impact on Freeze's research. Above all, it meant a shift in focus from the clergy to "everyday religion," especially the meaning of Russian Orthodoxy for popular religion and the worldly lives of believers. That led to numerous publications on the religious politics of canonization, patterns of religious observance, the interplay of religion and social institutions (above all, the family, marriage, and divorce). This subject, "Church and Society in Imperial Russia, 1750-1914," is the principal focus of Freeze's current research and writing, which has produced a number of ancillary essays and which will culminate in a two-volume study based primarily on research in an array of central and provincial archives.
While Freeze's earlier research focused on Imperial Russia, the "archival revolution of 1991," the collapse of the Soviet Union, the sudden access to Soviet archives--all this encouraged Freeze to expand his research beyond 1917 and to see Russian religious and social history from a broader chronological perspective. He is currently preparing a volume for the Yale University Press series, "Annals of Communism," devoted to the confrontation and interaction of Bolsheviks and believers in the first decades of Soviet power. This study provides a fresh perspective on social and religious life "from below," emphasizing not the decrees from Moscow but grassroots realities at the local level. Freeze was also director of the "Russian Archive Project," funded by an American research organization and designed to compile and publish datasets on newly accessible archival collections. The result was a series of archival guides on previously closed repositories, for the first time enabling researchers--Russian and foreign--to know what collections existed and therefore vastly expanding the horizons for research.
Freeze teaches a broad range of courses and seminars, primarily in modern Russian history. He is also the director of a number of recent and current dissertations in Russian religious history (including major new works on monasticism, the parish clergy in Kiev diocese, and the Russian Church Council of 1917-1918), as well as pioneering work in Soviet history (including studies of Jewish colonization in the Soviet Crimea in the 1920s, indigenization of power and culture in Soviet Belarus in the 1920s-1930s, social change in Kyrgyzstan in the 1920s-1930s, and reconstruction of the Ukrainian village after World War II). Freeze also lays a strong emphasis on interdisciplinary training, reflected directly in a core graduate course "Historical Research: Methods and New Departures," which emphasizes the new frontiers and new approaches to historical scholarship. His goal is to train graduate students to conduct research that is original and innovative--thematically, conceptually, methodologically, and empirically.
Freeze is also very active in international scholarly activities. He regularly presents papers at international conferences, most recently a 2006 conference in Moscow (on the Stalinist repression of 1937), a June 2007 conference in Urumqi China (on post-Soviet Central Asia), and a 2007 conference in Moscow (on nineteenth-century Russian Church history). He has also taught extensively in Germany, including the universities in Tübingen, Heidelberg, and Göttingen, where he offered lecture courses and seminars on Russian religious history, on Imperial Russian and Soviet history, and on a variety of specialized subjects.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Dechristianization in Holy Rus'? Reports from Vladimir Diocese on Popular Piety, 1900-1913." Faith and Story: Orthodox Narratives in Imperial Russia. Ed. Heather Coleman. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2014 (forthcoming)
Freeze, Gregory L. "Die Lutherisch-Evangelische Kirche in Russland, 1800-1914." Handbuch der baltischen Geschichte. vol. 2 Ed. Konrad Maier, Karsten Brueggerman, and Ralph Tuchtenhagen. Stuttgart: A. Hiersemann, 2014 (forthcoming)
Freeze, Gregory L. "Priests and Revolution: The Parish Clergy of Vladimir in 1905." Rethinking the 1905 Revolution: Transcultural Perspectives. Ed. Franziska Schwedewie et al.. Bloomington, IN: Slavica, 2014 (forthcoming)
Freeze, Gregory L. "Zhivago's Children: The Last Russian Intelligentsia." by V. Zubok. Journal of Modern History 2014 (forthcoming)
Freeze, Gregory L. "Biologiia, ekonomika i metaistoriia (kruglyi stol)." Rossiiskaia istoriia No. 1 (2012). (forthcoming)
Freeze, Gregory L. "Voluntary Associations in Tsarist Russia: Science, Patriotism, and Civil Society." by Joseph Bradley. forthcoming in: Journal of Modern History 2010 (forthcoming)
Freeze, Gregory L. "Kul'turnyi obmen SShA-SSSR i istoricheskaia nauka." Istoriia i kul'turnyi obmen. Ed. Albina Krymskaia and Rafail Ganelin. St. Petersburg, forthcoming:, 2014
Freeze, Gregory L. "Pravoslavie, vlast' i sekularizatsiia v Rossii 1860-1940." Perspectiva.net (2014): <http://www.perspectivia.net/content/publikationen/vortraege-moskau/freeze_september Also available as a podcast (in Russian): http://vimeo.com/67191041>.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Von Entkirchlichung zu Laisierung: Staat, Kirche, und Gläubige in Rußland." Politik und Religion. Ed. Heinrich Meier. Munich: Piper-Verlag, 2013. 79-120.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Subversive Atheism: From Antireligious Campaign to Religious Revival in Ukraine in the 1920s." State Secularism and Lived Religion in Russia and Ukraine. Ed. Catherine Wanner. New York and Washington DC: Oxford University Press and Woodrow Wilson Center, 2012. 21-62.
Freeze, Gregory L. "“Critical Dynamic of the Russian Revolution: Irreligion or Religion?”." Religion in the French and Russian Revolutions: A Comparative Approach,. Ed. Martin Schulz Wessel and Daniel Schönpflug. Munich:, 2012. 51-82.
G.L. Freeze, ed.: Boris N. Mironov. The Standard of Living and Revolutions in Imperial Russia. Oxford: Routledge, 2012.
Freeze, Gregory L. Kuvaus venälïsestä maalaispapistosta. Seurakuntapapin selonteko 1800-luvulta I.S. Beljustin.. 1st. ed. Jyväskylä, Finland: Ortodoksisten Pappien Liitto ry, 2011.
Freeze, Gregory L, ed. Russia; a History. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Freeze, Gregory L. "A Modern 'Time of Troubles': From Reform to Disintegration, 1985-1999." Russia; a History. 3rd ed. Ed. Gregory L. Freeze. Oxford:: Oxford University Press, 2009
Freeze, Gregory L. "Mirskie narrativy o sviashchennom tainstve: Brak i razvod v pozdneimperskoi Rossii." Pravoslavie: konfessiia, instituty, religioznost' (XVII-XX vv.). Sbornik statei. Ed. Mikhail Dolbilov, Boris Kolonitskii, and Pavel Rogoznyi. St. Petersburg: Izdatel'stvo Evropeiskogo universiteta v S. Peterburge, 2009. pp. 122-175.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Rebuilding Russia: The Putin Era." Russia; a History. 3rd ed. Ed. Gregory L. Freeze. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009
Freeze, Gregory L. "Book Review." Rev. of Explorations in Visual Culture, by Valerie Kivelson and Joan Neuberger, eds.. Slavic Review vol. 67 (2008)
Freeze, Gregory L. "Mentalitet prikhodskogo dukhovenstva: kolichestvennyi i narratologicheskii analiz "otvetov" 1863g." Provintsial'noe dukhovenstvo dorevoliutsionnoi Rossii: sbornik nauchnykh trudov. vol. 3 Ed. T. G. Leont'eva. Tver: Slavianskii mir, 2008. pp. 128-43.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Pastyr' i tserkovnyi deiatel': Sviatitel' Filaret Moskovskii i staroobriadcheskii raskol." Filaretovskii al'manakh. vol. 4, 2008
Freeze, Gregory L. "State-Building in Central Asia: Global Dynamics, External Perceptions, Local Responses." Central Asia in Transition, Urumqi, China. 28 June 2007.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Review Essay." Rev. of Russischer Alltag: Eine Geschichte in neun Zeitbildern vom Fruehmittelalter bis zur Gegenwart. 3 vols., by Carsten Goehrke. Kritika vol. 8 (2007): 877-86.
Freeze, Gregory L.. "Otkryvaia zanovo pravoslavnoe proshloe: mikroistoricheskii podkhod k religioznoi praktike v Rossii perioda imperii i Rossii." Smena paradigm: sovremennaia rusistika: istochniki, issledovaniia, istoriografiia. vol. Nestor, vol. 11 Ed. Boris N. Mironov. Moscow: Izd-vo "Nestor-istoriia", 2007. pp. 369-95.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Matrimonial Sacrament and Profane Stories: Class, Gender, Confession, and the Politics of Divorce in Late Imperial Russia." Sacred Stories: Religion and Spirituality in Modern Russia. Ed. Mark Steinberg and Heather Coleman. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2006. 146-178.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Russian Orthodoxy: Church, People, and Politics in Imperial Russia." Cambridge History of Russia. vol. 2 Ed. Dominc Lieven. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. 284-305.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Gubitel'noe blagochestie: religiia i politicheskii krizis v poslednie gody sushchestvovaniia imperatorskoi Rossii." Bogoslovie, kul'tura, obrazovanie. Strannitsy 2004: 234-274, 393-402.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Lutheranism and Orthodoxy in Russia: A Critical Reassessment." Luther zwischen Kulturen. Ed. Hans Medick. Goettingen: Vanderhoek, 2004. 297-317.
Freeze, Gregory L. "The Church and the Tsar: A Confrontation over Divorce in Late Imperial Russia." Stranitsy Rossiiskoi istorii: problemy, sobytiia, liudi. Sbornik statei v chest' semidesiatiletiiu Borisa Vasil'evicha Anan'icha. Ed. V.M. Paneiakh. St. Petersburg: Dmitrii Bulanin, 2004. 195-203.
Freeze,Gregory L. "A Pious Folk? Religious Observance in Vladimir Diocese." Jahrbuecher fuer Geschichte Osteuropas 52. 3 (2004): 323-40.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Skeptical Reformer, Staunch Tserkovnik: Metropolitan Philaret and the Great Reforms." Philaret, Metropolitan of Moscow, 1782-1867. Ed. Vladimir Tsurikov. Jordanville: Variable Press, 2003. 151-92.
Freeze, Gregory L. (with Peter Gatrell and D. A. Macey). "Sotsial'naia istoriia kak metaistoriia." Sotsial'naia istoriia Rossii. vol. 2nd. ed. Ed. B.N. Mironov. St. Petersburg:, 2003. i-xviii.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Meltdown, Rebuilding, Reform (1996-2001)." Russia; a History. vol. 2001 Ed. G. L. Freeze. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. 422-455.
Freeze,Gregory L, ed.. Russia: A History (Second Edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Freeze, Gregory L (G.L. Friz) and B.V. Anan'ich. "F. F. Iusupov i velikii kniaz' Dmitrii Pavlovich ob ubiistve Grigoriia Rasputina (1920g.)." Angliiskaia naberezhnaia, 4: Ezhegodnik S-Peterburgsskogo obshchestva istorikov i arkhivistov (2001): 343-346.
Freeze, Gregory L. "All Power to the Parish? The Problem and Politics of Church Reform in Late Imperial Russia." Social Identities in Revolutionary Russia. Ed. Madhavan K. Palat. London: Macmillan, 2001. 174-208.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Recent Scholarship on Russian Orthodoxy: A Critique." Kritika 2. (2001): 269-78.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Eastern Orthodoxy." Encyclopedia of European Social History. vol. 5 Ed. P.N. Stearns. New York: Scribners, 2000. 313-326.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Krylov v. Krylova: 'Sexual Incapacity' and Divorce in Tsarist Russia." The Human Tradition in Modern Russia. Ed. William Husband. Wilmington Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 2000. 5-17.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Soslovnaia paradigma i sotsial'naia istoriia Rossii." Russkaia istoriia v SShA. Vekhi istorigrafii poslednikh let. Samara: Samarskii gosudarstvennyi universitet, 2000. 121-164.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Church and Politics in Late Imperial Russia: Crisis and Radicalization of the Orthodox Clergy." Russia under the Last Tsar: Opposition and Subversion, 1894-1917. Ed. Anna Geifman. Oxford: Blackwells, 1999. 269-297.
Freeze, Gregory L. "L'ortodossia russe e la crisis delle famiglie. Il divorzio in Russia tra la rivoluzione e la guerre (1917-1921)." L'Autunno della Santa Russia, 1917-1945. Ed. Adalberto Mainardi. Magnano: Qipajon, 1999. 79-117.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Russian Orthodoxy on the Periphery: Decoding the Raporty blagochinnykh in Lithuana Diocese." Problemy vsemirnoi istorii. Ed. B. V. Anan'ich, et al.. St. Petersburg:, 1999. 124-31.
Freeze, Gregory L. "L'Episcopato nella chiesa ortodossa russe: Crisi politica e religiosa alla fine dell'ancien regime." La Grande Vigilia. Ed. Adalberto Mainardi. Magnano: Comunita Monastica di Bose, 1998. 21-55.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Policing Piety: The Church and Popular Religion in Russia, 1750-1850." Rethinking Imperial Russia. Ed. David L. Ransel and Jane Burbank. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998. 210-249.
Freeze, Gregory L. "The Stalinist Assault on the Parish, 1929-1941." Stalinismus vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg: Neue Wege der Forschung. Ed. Manfred Hildermeier. Munich: Oldenburg Verlag, 1998. 209-232.
Freeze, Gregory L. "From Great Reforms to Counter-Reforms, 1855-1895." Russia; a History. Ed. G. L. Freeze. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. 170-199.
Freeze, Gregory L. "From Stalinism to Stagnation, 1953-1985." Russia; a History. Ed. G. L. Freeze. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. 347-382.
Freeze,Gregory L, ed. & trans. Pariahs, Partners, Predators: German-Soviet Relations, 1922-1941. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Subversive Piety: Religion and the Political Crisis in Late Imperial Russia." Journal of Modern History 68. (1996): 308-350.
Freeze,Gregory L, with V.A. Kozlov and S.V. Mironenko. The Special Files for L.P. Beria, from the NKVD-MVD of the USSR. Moscow: Blagovest, 1996.
Freeze, Gregory L et al.. "Final Report of the Joint Task Force on Archives." Slavic Review 54. (1995): 407-26.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Counter-Reformation in Russian Orthodoxy: Popular Response to Religious Innovation, 1922-1925." Slavic Review 54. (1995): 305-339.
Freeze,Gregory L, Russian Archive Series, co-ed. S.V. Mironenko. Guide to the Russian State Archive. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Blagovest, 1994.
Freeze,Gregory L, trans. & co-ed. P. Minakir. The Russian Far East: An Economic Survey. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1994.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Public Penance in Imperial Russia: A Prosopography of Sinners." Seeking God: The Recovery of Religious Identity in Orthodox Russia, Ukraine, and Georgia. Ed. Stephen K. Batalden. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1993. 53-82.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Between Estate and Profession: Russian Clergy of the Ancien Regime in Comparative Perspective." Social Orders and Social Classes in EUrope since 1500: Studies in Social Stratification. Ed. Michael Bush. London: Longman, 1992. 47-65.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Between Estate and Profession: Russian Clergyu of the Ancien Regime in Comparative Perspective." Social Orders and Social Classes in Europe since 1500. vol. 1992 Ed. Michael Bush. London: Longman`, 1992. 47-65.
Freeze, Gregory L. "New Perspectives on the Russian Peasant under the Old Regime." European History Quarterly 22. (1992): 47-65.
Freeze, Gregory L (G.L. Friz). "Tserkov' i vlast': politicheskaia kul=tura na zakate starogo rezhima." Znanie--sila 1991. no. 2 (1991): 40-45.
Freeze, Gregory L. "'Going to the Intelligentsia':The Church and Its Urban Mission in Post-Reform Russia." Between Tsar and People: Educated Society and the Quest for Public Identity in Late Imperial Russia. Ed. James West, Edith Clowes, and Samuel Kassow. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991. 215-232.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Tserkov', religiia i politicheskaia kul'tura na zakate starogo rezhima." Istoriia SSSR 1991, no. 2. (1991): 107-119.
Freeze,Gregory L, Vol. 2, ed. & compiler. Igor Smolitsch: Geschichte der russischen Kirsche. Free University Press, 1991.
Freeze,Gregory L, ed. & trans.. The Battle for Oil: The Economics and Politics of Multinational Corporate Conflict, 1870-1930, by A.A. Fursenko. JAI Press Greenwich, 1991.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Bringing Order to the Russian Family: Marriage and Divorce in Imperial Russia, 1760-1860." Journal of Modern History 62. (1990): 709-748.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Rechristianization of Russia: The Church and Popular Religion, 1750-1850." Studia Slavica Finlandensia 6. (1990): 101-36.
Freeze, Gregory L. "The Orthodox Church and Serfdom in Prereform Russia." Slavic Review 48. (1989): 361-387.
Freeze, Gregory L. "A Social Mission for Russian Orthodoxy: The Kazan Requiem of 1861." Imperial Russia, 1700-1917: State, Society, Opposition. Ed. Marshall Shatz and Ezra Mendelsohn. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1988. 115-135.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Church, State and Society in Catherinean Russia: the Synodal Instruction to the Legislative Commission of 1767-1768." 'Aus der anmuthigen Gelehrsamkeit'. Tuebinger Studien zum 18. Jahrhundert. Ed. E. Mueller. Tuebingen: 1988, 1988. 155-168.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Nuns, Jews, and Religion in Eighteenth-Century Russia." Russia and the World of the Eighteenth Century. Ed. R.P. Bartlett et al.. Columbus: Slavica, 1988. 141-146.
Freeze,Gregory L. From Supplication to Revolution: A Documentary Social History of Imperial Russia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Church and Religion in Russian Historiography: The Case of V.O. Kliuchevskii." Canadian-American Slavic Studies 20. (1986): 399-416.
Freeze, Gregory L. "The Soslovie (Estate) Paradigm and Russian Social History." American Historical Review 91. (1986): 11-36.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Die Laeisierung des Archimandriten Feodor (Bucharev) und ihre kirchenpolitischen Hintergruende." Kirche im Osten 28. (1985): 26-52.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Handmaiden of the State? The Orthodox Church in Imperial Russia Reconsidered." Journal of Ecclesiastical History 36. (1985): 82-102.
Freeze,Gregory L, trans. & ed.. A Description of the Clergy in Rural Russia: The Memoir of a Nineteenth-Century Parish Priest: I.S. Belliustin. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985.
Freeze, Gregory L. "A Case of Stunted Anticlericalism: Clergy and Society in Russian orthodoxy." European Studies Review 13. (1983): 177-200.
Freeze,Gregory L. Parish Clergy in 19th Century Russia. Princeton University Press, 1983.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Caste and Emancipation: The Changing Status of Clerical Families in Imperial Russia." The Family in Imperial Russia: New Lines of Historical Research. Ed. David L. Ransel. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978. 124-50.
Freeze, Gregory L. "P. A. Valuyev and the Politics of Church Reform (1861-1862)." Slavonic and East European Review 56. (1978): 68-87.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Revolt from Below: A Priest's Manifesto on the Crisis in Russian Orthodoxy." Russian Orthodoxy under the Old Regime. Ed. Theofanis Stavrou. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1978. 90-124.
Freeze, Gregory L. The Russian Levites: Parish Clergy in the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1977.
Freeze, Gregory L. "The Disintegration of Traditional Communities: the Parish in Eighteenth-Century Russia." Journal of Modern History 48. (1976): 32-50.
Freeze, Gregory L. "Social Mobility and the Russian Parish Clergy in the Eighteenth Century." Slavic Review 33. (1974): 641-62.
Freeze, Gregory L. "The Shift in Russian Liberalism, 1901-1903." Slavic Review 28. (1969): 81-91.
|EL||94a||Experiential Learning Practicum|
|GSAS||302d||Interdisciplinary Dissertation Seminar|
|HIST||149b||Russian Women in Politics, Society and Culture|
|HIST||177a||The Politics of Soviet Cinema, 1921-1953|
|HIST||177b||Modern Germany: Rise of a Global Power|
|HIST||206a||Christianity in the Modern World, 1750-1914|
|HIST||206b||Twentieth-Century Christianity: Secularization and Globalization|
|HIST||211a||Seminar in Comparative History I|
|IGS||10a||Introduction to International and Global Studies|