Modern Jewish history.
Brandeis University, Ph.D.
Harvard University, M.A.
Jewish Theological Seminary, B.R.E.
Columbia University, B.S.
Awards and Honors
Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa> Hebrew College (2012)
Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa. Brandeis University (2011)
Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa. Weizmann Institute of Science (2007)
Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa. Ben Gurion University, Israel (2005)
Member, Board of Directors, The Abraham Fund Initiative, New York, NY (2003)
Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa. Fairfield University (1999)
Elected member of the Council on Foreign Relations (1999)
Appointed by President William Jefferson Clinton to serve on the Presidential Advisory Commission on Holocaust Assets in the United States (1998)
Member, Executive Committee, Board of the Leo Baeck Institute of New York (1998)
Member, International Panel of the Commission on the Clarification of Nazi Activities in the Argentine Republic (1997)
Doctor of Hebrew Letters, honoris causa. The Jewish Theological Seminary of America (1996)
Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa. Hebrew Union College - Jewish Institute of Religion (1995)
Elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1995)
Elected Fellow of the American Academy for Jewish Research (1993)
Elected Fellow of the Royal Historical Society [England] (1992)
First recipient of the President of Israel Prize awarded by the Knesset (Israeli parliament) (1990)
Shazar Prize in History (Israel) (1988)
National Endowment for the Humanities Grant (1987 - 1988)
National Jewish Book Award - Biography (Chaim Weizmann) (1986)
Simon Guggenheim Award (1979 - 1980)
Woodrow Wilson Fellowship (1975 - 1976)