98-99 University Bulletin Entry for:

The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

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History and Organization

The Graduate School of Artsand Sciences was formally established in 1953 when the University'sBoard of Trustees authorized graduate study in the departmentsof chemistry, music, psychology, and Near Eastern and Judaic Studies.The general direction of the Graduate School is vested in a GraduateCouncil of the Faculty comprised of the President and the provost,ex officio; the dean of arts and sciences; and one representative,usually the chair, of each of the several University departmentsand programs offering graduate instruction. The members of theGraduate Council are appointed by the President on the recommendationsof the dean of arts and sciences. The functions of the GraduateCouncil, exercised in consonance with University policy, are todetermine requirements for admission; provide programs of studyand examination; establish and maintain requirements for graduatedegrees; make recommendations for degrees; make recommendationsfor new areas of graduate study; lay down such regulations asmay be considered necessary or expedient for governing the GraduateSchool; and exercise a general supervision over its affairs. Thedean of arts and sciences is the chair of the Graduate Counciland the chief executive officer of the Graduate School.


The underlying ideal of theGraduate School is to assemble a community of scholars, scientists,and artists, in whose company the student-scholar can pursue studyand research as an apprentice. This objective is to be attainedby individualizing programs of study, restricting the number ofstudents accepted, maintaining continual contact between studentsand faculty, and fostering the intellectual potential of eachstudent. The graduate programs are designed to educate broadlyas well as train professionally. Degrees are granted on the evidenceof intellectual growth and development, rather than solely onthe basis of formal course credits. Fulfillment of the minimumrequirements cannot, therefore, be regarded as the sole requisitefor degrees.

Areas of Graduate Study

During the academic year 1998-99,graduate programs will be offered in the following areas:

1. American History

2. Anthropology

3. Anthropology and Women'sStudies

4. Biochemistry

5. Bioorganic Chemistry

6. Biophysics and StructuralBiology

7. Chemistry

8. Classics

9. Comparative History

10. Computer Science

11. English and American Literature

12. English and American Literatureand Women's Studies

13. Genetic Counseling

14. Jewish Communal Service

15. Jewish Communal Serviceand Management of Human Services (Heller School)

16. Jewish Communal Serviceand Near Eastern and Judaic Studies

17. Interdisciplinary Programin Literary Studies

18. Interdisciplinary Programin Translation

19. Mathematics

20. Molecular and Cell Biology

21. Music

22. Near Eastern and JudaicStudies

23. Near Eastern and JudaicStudies and Sociology

24. Near Eastern and JudaicStudies and Women's Studies

25. Neuroscience

26. Physics

27. Politics

28. Politics and Social Policy(Heller School)

29. Psychology

30. Sociology

31. Sociology and Social Policy(Heller School)

32. Sociology and Women's Studies

33. Theater Arts

The Graduate School also offerspost-baccalaureate programs in studio art and premedical studies,as well as a diploma in Jewish studies and an Artist's diplomain music. There are also joint degree programs for Ph.D. studentsat the master's and doctoral levels.

Graduate School

The Graduate School officeis located on the second floor of Kutz Hall. All requests forinformation and application forms should be addressed to the GraduateSchool of Arts and Sciences, Brandeis University, Mailstop 031,P.O. Box 9110, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454-9110.


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As a rule, only well-qualifiedapplicants who have completed at least the normal four-year programleading to the bachelor's degree will be considered for admissionto the Graduate School. Graduates of foreign schools and otherswho have completed the equivalent of a bachelor's degree programmay apply, describing the educational program they have completed.


Applicants for admission tothe graduate programs in American history, biochemistry, bioorganicchemistry, biophysics and structural biology, chemistry, comparativehistory, computer science, English and American literature, geneticcounseling, Jewish communal service, mathematics, molecular andcell biology, neuroscience, physics, politics, and psychologymust submit official results of the Graduate Record Examination(GRE). Applicants to the Jewish Communal Service program may submitthe official results of either the GMAT or the Miller AnalogiesTest in lieu of the GRE. All other applicants are urged to takethe GRE. Consult specific programs for additional test requirements.In order for the results of the GRE to be considered, the applicantshould take the examination no later than January preceding theacademic year for which application is made. Information concerningthe GRE is available from the Educational Testing Service, Princeton,New Jersey 08541-6155.

Applicants whose native languageis not English, regardless of the field of graduate study, arerequired to submit the official score of the Test of English asa Foreign Language (TOEFL). The minimum score for admission tothe Graduate School is 600. They are also advised to take theTest of Written English (TWE) and Test of Spoken English (TSE)unless English is their first language. Applications for admissionto the test should be made to TOEFL, Educational Testing Service,Princeton, New Jersey 08541-6155, USA.


Specific requirements for eachgraduate program are to be found under the appropriate headingsin this Bulletin and on the information sheet with theapplication. Each applicant should consult these requirementsbefore filing an application. A student may apply to only onegraduate program. An applicant should write to the Graduate Schoolof Arts and Sciences, stating which program of study he or shewishes to enter. A Guide to Graduate Admissions with appropriateforms will be forwarded to the applicant. The Application forAdmission should be completed and returned in duplicate assoon as possible.

Applications for admissionfor the spring term should be filed by December 1. Students arenot usually admitted at midyear, and those who do gain admissionare not normally eligible for financial aid.

All applicants must arrangeto forward, in duplicate, official transcripts of all undergraduateand graduate work. In addition, they must submit at least twoletters of recommendation, preferably from professors with whomthey have studied in their proposed area of study. Applicantswho have engaged in graduate study elsewhere should request atleast one of the recommendations from a professor with whom theyhave done graduate work.

Many programs also requirethe submission of samples of work as well as the materials describedabove. Applicants should consult program requirements in a latersection of this Bulletin for enumeration of additionalmaterials to be submitted.

All applications must be accompaniedby the application fee of $40 if postmarked by December 1, 1998,and $60 if postmarked after that date. The fee is payable by checkor money order to Brandeis University. No application willbe processed until this fee is paid. There is a one-time feewaiver for Brandeis students, alumni, and staff.

Admission Procedure

All applicants are consideredon a competitive basis. The number of students admitted each yearin each program is limited so that the Graduate School may operateeffectively under its distinctive principles of individualizedstudy and apprenticeship. Consequently, admission may sometimesbe denied to qualified persons. Meeting the minimum standardsof admission merely qualifies the applicant for a place in thegroup from which final selections will be made. Selections arebased on the applicant's ability to do graduate work of high quality,as shown by the distinction of his or her previous record, particularlyin the proposed area of study; the letters of recommendation submittedin support of the application; and his or her presumed adaptabilityto the particular graduate programs offered by Brandeis University.In addition, knowledge of foreign languages, relevant practicalexperience in the field, samples of work, the results of the GRE,and indications of character are considered.

Each application for admissionwith all supporting records is first examined by the appropriateprogram committee. The committee recommends to the dean of artsand sciences which applicants should be selected for admissionand financial aid. The dean reviews all applications in the lightof the program's recommendations.


A student who has been acceptedfor admission to the Graduate School will be notified by a letterspecifying the date by which he or she must accept the offer ofadmission and awards, if any. A matriculation fee of $300 mustbe filed by each master's degree, certificate, or diploma applicantupon notification of acceptance. This fee reserves a place inthe class and is credited toward the first semester tuition bill.If the student fails to enroll or withdraws his or her application,the matriculation fee is not refunded. If a student selected foradmission indicates that he or she does not intend to accept theoffer or fails to reply by the date specified, the admission offerbecomes void and another applicant may be accepted.

Brandeis University subscribesto the "Resolution Regarding Scholars, Fellows, Trainees,and Graduate Assistants" of the Council of Graduate Schoolsin the United States. The resolution states:

Acceptance of an offer offinancial support (such as a graduate scholarship, fellowship,traineeship, or assistantship) for the next academic year by aprospective or enrolled graduate student completes an agreementthat both student and graduate school expect to honor. In thatcontext, the conditions affecting such offers and their acceptancemust be defined carefully and understood by all parties. Studentsare under no obligation to respond to offers of financial supportprior to April 15; earlier deadlines for acceptance of such offersviolate the intent of this Resolution. In those instances in whicha student accepts an offer before April 15, and subsequently desiresto withdraw that acceptance, the student may submit in writinga resignation of the appointment at any time through April 15.However, an acceptance given or left in force after April 15 commitsthe student not to accept another offer without first obtaininga written release from the institution to which a commitment hasbeen made. Similarly, an offer by an institution after April 15is conditional on presentation by the student of the written releasefrom any previously accepted offer. It is further agreed by theinstitutions and organizations subscribing to the above Resolutionthat a copy of this Resolution should accompany every scholarship,fellowship, traineeship, and assistantship offer.

Students must provide the GraduateSchool office with an official final transcript of their undergraduaterecord and, if required by the graduate program, any graduatework in process at the time of acceptance. In addition, studentswho are accepted are required to complete and return a medicalquestionnaire and a health insurance form. Registration isconditional upon receipt by University Health Services of theserequired forms.

If, after having been admitted,a student cannot attend, he or she should notify the GraduateSchool as soon as possible. If such a student wishes to be admittedin a subsequent academic year, he or she must request reactivationof the application at the appropriate time, and update it witha new statement of purpose and official transcripts, if applicable.Admission to the Graduate School does not imply that the successfulapplicant has been accepted as a candidate for a graduate degree.Superior performance at Brandeis University is essential.

Applicants who have been deniedadmission may reapply in a later year, particularly if they havehad further training that would strengthen their applicationsor if they can submit additional letters of recommendation.

Academic Standing

Admission is valid only forone academic year. Graduate programs review students' academicprogress annually. Satisfactory academic progress in a programalso involves maintaining the professional standards expectedin a particular discipline or program. Academic insufficiencyor failure to make suitable progress toward the degree may requirewithdrawal. A student's record is reviewed annually and recommendationsfor readmission are made by the graduate programs.

International Students

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Graduates of internationalcolleges and universities who have the equivalent of an Americanbachelor's degree and international students who have graduatedfrom American universities may compete for admission and financialassistance at Brandeis, which is authorized under federal lawto enroll nonimmigrant alien students.

Entrance Examinations

All applicants whose nativelanguage is not English must submit the official score of theTest of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). Thorough competencein English is required for study at Brandeis. They are also advisedto take the Test of Written English (TWE) and Test of Spoken English(TSE). Applicants should consult specific programs for additionaltest requirements. For information concerning the administrationof the TOEFL, write to the Educational Testing Service, Princeton,New Jersey 08541-6155.

Financial Aid

Financial aid in the form ofscholarships, fellowships, teaching assistantships, and researchassistantships is available to only a few of the most outstandingstudents. In any case, the total assistance offered usually coversonly a small proportion of the student's total annual expenses.Hence students, when applying for admission, should indicate ameans of financial support.


The regulations of the UnitedStates Immigration and Naturalization Service limit strictly theamount of paid work that a student from abroad may do. The InternationalStudents and Scholars Office will provide further informationregarding this issue.

Requirements for the Degree

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The following general requirementsapply to the awarding of graduate degrees in all areas of study.For specific program requirements students should consult theappropriate section of this Bulletin. Requirements forpost-baccalaureate certificate and diploma programs are listedin the relevant program sections of this Bulletin.

Master of Arts and Masterof Science

In order to qualify for a master'sdegree, the student must complete a minimum of one year's residencyat Brandeis University, ordinarily computed as eight term coursesof approved study. Some programs require a two-year residency.Please consult the appropriate program for detailed information.Programs offering master's programs may require that the candidatedemonstrate a reading knowledge of at least one foreign languageand pass satisfactorily a general or qualifying examination which,at the program's discretion, may be in one or more parts and maybe written, oral or both. Where a thesis is required for the master'sdegree, two copies must be submitted to the program chair in finalform by the date specified in the current academic calendar.

The master's degree must beearned within four years from the inception of graduate studyat Brandeis University.

Master of Fine Arts

In order to qualify for thedegree of Master of Fine Arts in Music, the candidate must completea two-year residency at Brandeis University, ordinarily computedas 12 term courses at the graduate level, and must meet the specificrequirements for the degree as set forth under Music, Requirementsfor the Master of Fine Arts Degree, in a later section ofthis Bulletin. Two copies of the thesis or compositionmust be submitted to the program chair in final form by the datespecified in the current academic calendar.

In order to qualify for thedegree of Master of Fine Arts in Theater Arts, the candidate mustcomplete a two-year residency in acting, dramatic writing, anddramaturgy, or a three-year residency in design, and meet thespecific requirements for the degree as outlined under TheaterArts, Requirements for the Master of Fine Arts Degree,in a later section of this Bulletin. Students enrolledfor specialization in dramatic writing must submit two copiesof a play in final form in lieu of a thesis.

The Master of Fine Arts degreemust be earned within five years from the inception of graduatestudy at Brandeis University.

Doctor of Philosophy

In order to qualify for thedegree of Doctor of Philosophy, a student must ordinarily completea minimum of four years of graduate study, including three fullyears of residence and a fourth year devoted to the preparationof a doctoral dissertation. Under certain conditions, credit foradvanced standing will be granted for work taken in residencein graduate schools of other universities. Each program reservesthe right to require prospective candidates for the degree toperform work in excess of its minimum standards to assure thoroughmastery of the area.

Prospective candidates maybe required to demonstrate proficiency in at least one foreignlanguage. In all areas of study the student must satisfactorilypass a general or qualifying examination which, at the program'sdiscretion, may be in one or more parts and may be written, oral,or both. In addition, all prospective candidates must write adoctoral dissertation and defend it in a Final Oral Examination.

To be eligible for the Ph.D.degree, the student must have (1) completed all course and residencerequirements, (2) passed all language and qualifying examinations,and (3) written and successfully defended the doctoral dissertation.

Students entering BrandeisUniversity with no previous graduate work must earn the doctoratewithin eight years from the inception of study. Students who aregranted credit for a year of graduate work completed elsewheremust earn the degree within seven years from the inception oftheir study at Brandeis.

Students who have passed theterminal point for the degree must apply to the Graduate Schoolfor an extension no later than the final semester prior to theexpiration of their time to degree.

Language Requirements

There is no University requirementfor foreign language competency at either the master's or doctorallevel.

Each program determines whichlanguages are acceptable as satisfying its foreign language requirement.Some programs may not require foreign language competency, whileothers may set requirements that will vary within the subfieldsoffered by those programs. In programs where languages are required,students are expected to satisfy the requirement as soon as possible.

For specific requirements ofeach program, consult the program listing in this Bulletin.

Joint Degrees

Interdisciplinary in design,the joint M.A. degree in women's studies and a discipline aimsto give Ph.D. students a solid grounding in their discipline-specificprogram while offering them the tools with which to incorporatewomen's studies into their areas of research. This joint master'soption, along the way to the Ph.D., is available in several programsthat are listed in the women's studies section of the catalog.Regarding the joint Ph.D. degree programs in NEJS and sociology,politics and social policy, and sociology and social policy consultthe relevant sections of this Bulletin.

Students who are interestedin designing a joint Ph.D. degree in two doctoral programs withinthe University may do so by petitioning the graduate school withtheir proposed program of study early in their graduate career.The admissions committees for both programs must approve the petition.It is understood that the student must satisfy all the requirementsof both programs and defend one dissertation before a defensecommittee comprised of faculty from both programs. Students shouldconsult the associate dean of graduate education for more specificinformation about applying for a joint doctoral degree.

Application for GraduateDegrees and Post-Baccalaureate Certificates and Diplomas

Candidates for graduate degrees,certificates, and diplomas must file an application with the UniversityRegistrar per the specified dates in the academic calendar inthe year in which the degree, certificate, or diploma is to beawarded. Upon written recommendation from a candidate's programor committee that the application be approved, the record willbe reviewed by the Graduate Council, which recommends the studentto the University's Board of Trustees for the award of the degree,certificate, or diploma. In case of failure or withdrawal fromcandidacy in any year, the student must reapply by filing a newapplication in a later year.

Under special circumstances,a student in the post-baccalaureate studio art program may begiven permission to return for an additional one or two semesters.In this instance, the student would receive the certificate atthe end of his or her extended course of study.

Dissertation and FinalOral Examination

When a student is ready towrite the doctoral dissertation, a dissertation reading committeeof no fewer than three faculty members, at least one of whom isa tenured member of the faculty, will be appointed by the chairof the student's program. The student's principal advisor willserve as the chair of this committee. The dissertation readingcommittee will guide the research for and preparation of the dissertation.This committee, with the approval of the associate dean for graduateeducation and of the chair of the student's program, will appointa dissertation examining committee to preside over the student'sFinal Oral Examination and will notify the candidate of the timeand place of the Final Oral Examination at least three weeks priorto the scheduled date of the examination. Two copies of the dissertation,as well as an abstract of no more than 350 words, should be submittedto the dissertation reading committee for approval. The styleand format of the dissertation is determined by each program.

The dissertation, when approvedby the readers, must then be deposited in the program office whereit will be available for inspection by all interested membersof the faculty for at least two weeks prior to the Final OralExamination.

The program will publish thetime and place of the candidate's Final Oral Examination and thetitle of the doctoral dissertation. The Final Oral Examinationwill be open to any member of the faculty engaged in graduateinstruction and invited faculty members from other institutions.

The dissertation examiningcommittee, approved by the program chair and the associate deanfor graduate education, must be comprised of a minimum of threefaculty examiners, at least one of whom shall be a tenured memberof the faculty and one of whom shall be from a graduate programoutside the student's own, in a related area. The latter may bea faculty member from another university.

The examination may be restrictedto a defense of the dissertation or may cover the whole fieldof the dissertation. The candidate will be notified by his orher program of responsibility for coverage prior to the examination.

A report, signed by the dissertationexamining committee, certifying the candidate's successful performanceon the Final Oral Examination, will be submitted to the UniversityRegistrar.

If the dissertation examiningcommittee requires substantial revisions of the dissertation text,the revisions must be completed and accepted by the committeewithin six months of the dissertation defense, otherwise the dissertationmust be redefended.

Deposit and Publicationof Dissertation

No later than the dates specifiedin the current academic calendar for February and May degrees,the candidate must deposit in the Graduate School office two copiesof the finished dissertation, including the original typescript,in a state suitable for microfilm and Xerox publication. Bothcopies of the dissertation must have the signed approval of thedissertation supervisor and readers. One copy will be retainedby the graduate program, the other will be returned to the student,both bound. The candidate must also submit two copies of an abstractof the dissertation, not to exceed 350 words, that has been approvedby the dissertation supervisor.

Detailed instructions for submittingdissertations are available from the Graduate School office. Seealso the statement in this Bulletin, under Fees and Expenses,on the final doctoral fee.

Academic Regulations

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Every resident and post-residentstudent must register at the beginning of each term, whether attendingregular courses of study, carrying on research or independentreading, writing a thesis or dissertation, or utilizing any academicservice or facility of the University. Continuation students eligiblefor loans or requiring loan deferments must also register.

Program of Study

Before enrolling, the studentshould plan a program of study in consultation with the chairor graduate advisor of the program.

Graduate students may not registerfor an undergraduate course (numbered below 100) for degree, certificate(except in premedical studies), or diploma credit unless theycomplete a special petition available in the Office of the UniversityRegistrar, which requires the signatures of the instructor ofthat course and their program chair or graduate advisor. Creditwill not be given for undergraduate courses taken to make up deficienciesin the student's preparation for a program of graduate studies.Ordinarily a student may not receive credit toward completionof degree or residence requirements for courses undertaken toaid in the completion of language requirements. Students wishingto drop a full-year course at midyear must complete a specialpetition available in the Office of the University Registrar,which requires the signatures of the instructor of the courseand the chair of their program.

At the end of telephone registration(see Academic Calendar for specific date), all course enrollmentsare considered to be final.

Auditing Courses

The privilege of auditing courseswithout fee is extended to all regularly enrolled full-time graduatestudents except Special Students. Special students may audit coursesby paying for them at the same rate as those taken for credit.No courses may be audited without the permission of the instructor.Auditors may not take examinations or expect evaluation from theinstructor. No credit is given for an audited course.

Change of Program

Students are allowed to dropcourses after the end of telephone registration. To do so, a programchange form is obtained from and returned to the Office of theUniversity Registrar. Courses must be dropped no later than oneweek prior to the beginning of an examination period.

Registration in Termsof Time

Advanced students may registerin terms of time. Registration in terms of time is a device thathelps to individualize programs of study and permits increasedfreedom for independent research for advanced graduate students.Registration in terms of time frees students to pursue a programof study that partially accepts or bypasses altogether the systemof formal courses. Their time will be spent in such research andreading as will be most beneficial to their development as scholars.

Absence from Examinations

Students who are absent froma midyear or final examination without an accepted excuse willreceive a failing grade for that examination. No students maybe excused from such examination unless for emergency or medicalreasons, nor may they be excused if they were able to notify theinstructor in advance and failed to do so. Cases involving absenceare referred to the chair of the program who will decide whethera make-up examination shall be allowed and will notify the Officeof the University Registrar of the decision. The examination mustbe taken within six weeks of the opening of the next term.

Grades and Course Standards

Graduate students are expectedto maintain records of distinction in all courses. Letter gradeswill be used in all courses in which grading is possible. In readingsor research courses, if a letter grade cannot be given at theend of each term or academic year, credit ("CR") orno credit ("NC") may be used.

"NC" and any lettergrade below B- are unsatisfactory grades in the Graduate School.A course in which the student receives an unsatisfactory gradewill not be counted toward graduate credit. Post-baccalaureateand diploma students must have at least a B- average to be eligiblefor the certificate or diploma.

At the end of each academicyear the Office of the University Registrar issues to each studenta formal grade report.


A student who has not completedthe research or written work for any course may receive an "EI"(incomplete) or a failing grade at the discretion of the courseinstructor. A student who receives an "EI" must satisfactorilycomplete the work of the course in which the incomplete was givenin order to receive credit for the course and a letter grade.An incomplete, unless given by reason of the student's failureto attend a final examination, must be made up no later than theend of the term following the term in which it was received. Whenfailure to take a final examination has resulted in an "EI,"resolution of that "EI" to a letter grade must occurwithin six weeks of the beginning of the next term. An "EI"that is not resolved within the stated time limits will automaticallybecome a permanent incomplete ("I"). A student may petitionthe associate dean for graduate education for a change in a permanentincomplete, provided the petition is signed by the instructorof the course and the program chair.

Credit for Work Done Elsewhere

Graduate-level courses takenprior to matriculation at Brandeis may not be applied to reducea one-year residence requirement for the master of arts or masterof science degree, although a program may accept work taken elsewherein partial fulfillment of specific course requirements for thedegree. In that case, additional courses are designated to replacecourses from which the student has been exempted. The post-baccalaureateand diploma programs do not accept transfer credit.

A maximum of one term of residencecredit for graduate-level courses may be counted toward fulfillmentof the residence requirements for the master of fine arts degreeand for the master's degree programs that have a two-year residencerequirement.

Students admitted to Ph.D.programs may file an application to have graduate-level coursescounted toward fulfillment of residence requirements at this institution.A maximum of one year of residence credit may be granted.

Applicants for transfer creditwill not necessarily be granted the credit requested. Each programreserves the right to require of any student work in excess ofits minimum standards to assure thorough mastery of the area ofstudy. In all cases, courses being transferred must carry a gradeof B or better and must have been earned at an appropriately accreditedinstitution.

After completing one term ofresidence at a full-time rate or the equivalent at a part-timerate, students eligible to apply for transfer credit may do so.Forms are obtained from the Office of the University Registrarand submitted to the student's program for approval. The formis then returned to the Office of the University Registrar.

Credit for work at anotherinstitution taken concurrently with studies in the Graduate Schoolmust be approved for potential transfer credit by the student'sprogram and the associate dean for graduate education prior toregistration for such courses. Such approval is granted only inunusual circumstances and such credit does not count toward theresidency requirement if the maximum amount of transfer credithas already been granted. Students enrolled in the five year B.A./M.A.program are not eligible to count such credit toward the residencyrequirement. Students who formally cross-register with BostonCollege, Boston University, or Tufts University through the consortiumdo not need prior approval from the dean's office nor is it requiredfor coursework at the Graduate Consortium for Women's Studiesat Radcliffe College.

Residence Requirements

Residence requirements forall graduate degrees are computed by determining the amount ofregistration for credit and the tuition charges. Part-time studentspursuing part-time programs of study for credit complete theirresidence requirements when their fractional programs (one-quarter,one-half, three-quarters) total the amount required of a full-timestudent.

Master of Arts and Masterof Science

The minimum residence requirementfor most master's degree students is one academic year in a full-timegraduate credit program at the full tuition or the equivalentthereof in part-time study. A few programs have a two-year residencyrequirement so consult specific programs for this information.Transfer credit may not normally be applied to residence requirementsfor the M.A. and M.S. degrees.

Master of Fine Arts

The minimum residence requirementfor all M.F.A. students in music is four terms at a full-timerate, at the full tuition rate for each term, or the equivalentthereof in part-time study. Residence may be reduced by a maximumof one term with approved transfer credit.

The minimum residence requirementfor acting, dramatic writing, and dramaturgy students in theaterarts is four terms at the full tuition rate or the equivalentthereof in part-time study. The minimum residence for studentsin design is six terms at the full tuition rate or the equivalentthereof in part-time study. Residence may be reduced by a maximumof one term with approved transfer credit.

Doctor of Philosophy

The residence requirement forall students is three academic years in a full-time graduate creditprogram for each year, at the full tuition rate for each year,or the equivalent thereof in part-time study. A maximum of oneyear's approved transfer credit may be granted toward residencefor the Ph.D. degree.

Full-Time Resident Students

A full-time student is onewho devotes the entire time, during the course of the academicyear, to a program of graduate work at Brandeis University.

A full-time program may includea combination of teaching and research assistance, work leadingto the fulfillment of degree requirements, such as preparationfor qualifying, comprehensive, and final examinations, supervisedreading and research, and Ph.D. dissertations, as well as regularcourse work.

A full-time resident studentmay take as many courses for credit in any term as are approvedby the program chair, but no student may receive credit for, orbe charged for, more than a full-time program in any term. Thusthe minimum residence requirement for any degree may not be satisfiedby an accelerated program of study or payment of more than thefull-time tuition rate in any single academic year.

Part-Time Resident Students

A part-time student is onewho devotes less than the entire time to a program of graduatework at Brandeis University. Students may register for a creditprogram of one-quarter, one-half, or three-quarters time.

Students receiving financialaid from the University, who wish to change their status fromfull-time to part-time residency, must file with the GraduateSchool office an explanation of why full-time study is no longerpossible.

Post-Resident Students

A graduate student who hascompleted residence requirements and who needs to utilize thefull range of academic services and University facilities whilecompleting degree requirements is a post-resident student.

Continuation Students

A graduate student who hascompleted all degree requirements except the dissertation is eligiblefor continuation status. A student in this category is presumedto be part-time and, thus, not normally eligible for a leave ofabsence, except for health reasons. Students who can certify theyare full-time are eligible for federal and/or institutional loansor loan deferments and University health insurance if they register.Students may have borrowing privileges in the Library, maintaina computer account, use gym facilities, and purchase a parkingsticker. They are not normally eligible for fellowship, teaching,or research assistantships. Continuation students are not normallyobliged to register; however, they must pay the continuation feeor be liable to withdrawal for nonpayment.

Post-Baccalaureate Students

A post-baccalaureate or diplomastudent is a graduate student who is working in an approved courseof study. Normal tuition charges apply; see the fees and expensessection for program-specific fees.

Post-baccalaureate or diplomaprograms may not be pursued concurrently with other formal degreework. Students who subsequently become candidates for graduatedegrees are subject to the Graduate School's policy regardingtransfer credit towards graduate degrees.

Special Students

Properly qualified applicantswho wish to audit or to take courses without working for a degreemay be admitted. Special Students are normally not eligible forUniversity loans, scholarships, fellowships, or teaching or researchassistantships. Special Students who later wish to change theirstatus to that of part-time or full-time students working fora degree must apply for admission as resident students. They mustalso file a special petition if they wish credit to be acceptedfor any courses taken at Brandeis as Special Students. Creditfor such course work may be granted in exceptional cases. Normally,no more than two courses taken for credit may be transferableif the student is admitted to either the master's or doctoralprogram.

Leave of Absence

Students may petition for aleave of absence. The petition must have the approval of the chairof the program and the Graduate School. Leaves of absence up toone year will normally be granted to students in good academicstanding who present compelling personal reasons. Time spent onauthorized leaves of absence will not be counted toward the maximumtime permitted to complete degree requirements.

If for any reason a studentmust extend a leave of absence, he or she must request such anextension in writing before the leave of absence expires. Failureto do so will result in involuntary withdrawal from the GraduateSchool.

Leave of Absence withCredit

Students enrolled in a Ph.D.or master's program with a two-year residency may apply to studyabroad with credit. While this option does not affect the currentregulation concerning the maximum amount of transfer credit forwork done elsewhere, it does allow a student to receive transfercredit after matriculation.

To qualify for transfer creditupon return, a student must submit to his or her program priorto studying abroad a list of proposed courses to be approved bythe graduate program chair. The courses must be at the graduatelevel and constitute a full-time course load. Since the UniversityRegistrar must certify full-time status for purposes of loan defermentand federal loan eligibility, the application must include documentationrelated to the formulation of full-time status at the host schoolas well as the name of the contact person at the host school.To receive credit upon return, a student must earn grades of atleast B and submit an official transcript along with the Transferfor Credit petition to the Registrar's office.

Degree Pending

This designation applies tograduate students who have completed all degree and/or certificaterequirements. Master's and Ph.D. students who have completedfinal defense of the thesis or dissertation, with only minor revisionsremaining are also eligible for this status. Students in thiscategory are not eligible to use any academic services or Universityfacilities nor are they eligible for student loans or loan deferments.Students normally remain in this status for one semester only.


A student who wishes to withdrawvoluntarily from the Graduate School during a semester must doso in writing to the program chair and the Graduate School onor before the last day of instruction in the term. Failure tocomply may subject the student to involuntary withdrawal, cancellationof eligibility to receive an official transcript, and loss ofeligibility for refunds in accordance with the refund scheduleoutlined in the fees and expenses section. Permission to withdrawvoluntarily will not be granted if the student has not dischargedall financial obligations to the University or has not made financialarrangements satisfactory to the Bursar.

Students who are obliged toregister and fail to do so by the appropriate deadline or whofail to pay their bill will be administratively withdrawn. Theymay be readmitted (see below) for study in a subsequent term,but not for the term in which they were rendered inactive forfailure to register. Belatedly fulfilling financial obligationswill not negate the effects of administrative withdrawal.


A student who has not beenenrolled in the Graduate School for more than one year and whodid not obtain a leave of absence should file an application forreadmission and will be charged the readmission fee. The student'sgraduate program will determine in each case whether a studentshould be readmitted. If the program's requirements have changedduring the student's absence or the student is not deemed currentin his or her field of study, the program may require the studentto repeat or supplement previous academic requirements includingforeign language or qualifying exams. When a student is reinstated,he or she will be informed of current status regarding creditsand time to degree.

Graduate Cross-Registration

A full-time graduate studentat Brandeis University may enroll in one graduate course eachterm at Boston College, Boston University, Tufts University, orthe Graduate Consortium in Women's Studies at Radcliffe College.Information on courses for cross-registration at each of the hostinstitutions is available at the Graduate School office of eachinstitution.

A student who wishes to enrollin a course at one of these institutions should consult with theinstructor in the particular course and should expect to satisfythe prerequisites and requirements normally required for admissionto the course, including adherence to the academic calendar ofthat course.

A student at Brandeis Universitywho wishes to enroll in a graduate course at one of the host institutionsshould obtain a registration permit from the Office of the UniversityRegistrar and should present this permit to the Office of theUniversity Registrar of the host institution.

Fees and Expenses

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Payment of tuition and otherfees are due on August 3, 1998, for the fall semester and January4, 1999, for the spring semester. A student who has not paid suchfees by the day of registration will be refused the privilegeof registration.

The Nine-Payment Plan allowsthe year's charges to be paid in nine (9) equal monthly installments.Knight College Resource Group handles our Nine Month Payment Plan.The application and a nonrefundable handling fee of $100 mustbe returned to Knight by June 5, 1998. The payment plan electronicwithdrawals will begin on July 1, 1998.

A student who defaults in thepayment of indebtedness to the University shall be subject tosuspension, dismissal, and refusal of a transfer of credits orissuance of an official transcript.

Such indebtedness includes,but is not limited to, delinquency of a borrower in repaying aloan administered by the student loan office and the inabilityof that office to collect such a loan because the borrower hasdischarged the indebtedness through bankruptcy proceedings. Ifthe student is a degree, certificate, or diploma candidate, hisor her name will be stricken from the rolls.

A student who has been suspendedor dismissed for nonpayment of indebtedness to the Universitymay not be reinstated until such indebtedness is paid in full.

Application Fee: $40 or$60.

Payable by all applicants foradmission at the time the application for admission is submitted.The fee is $40 for applications postmarked by December 1, 1998,and $60 after that date. It is not refundable. Checks and moneyorders should be made payable to Brandeis University. No applicationfor admission will be processed until this fee is paid. Thereis a one-time fee waiver for Brandeis students and alumni.

Matriculation Deposit: $300.

Payable by a master's degree,certificate, or diploma applicant upon notification of acceptance.This fee reserves a place in the class and is credited towardthe first semester tuition bill. If a student fails to enrollor withdraws his or her application, the matriculation depositis forfeited.

Tuition Fees

The fees for tuition in theGraduate School for 1998-99 are as follows:

Full-time resident students:$23,360 per year, or $11,680 per term.

Post-resident students: $1,460per year.

Continuation Fee: $730 peryear.

Post-baccalaureate studio artstudents, modern Hebrew pedagogy students, and Artist diplomastudents: $11,680 per year.

Special students, post-baccalaureatepremedical students, and part-time resident students: $2,920 percourse, per term.

In view of the constantly increasingcosts of education, students may expect one or more tuition increasesduring their academic careers.

Post-Baccalaureate ProgramFees

Medical school applicationprocessing fee: $50, one-time fee payable on entrance.

Studio art program: $760 peryear.

Orientation Fee: $35.

A one-time fee payable by studentsentering for the first time.

Graduate Student ActivitiesFee: $10 per year.

Technology Fee: $160 peryear.

Final Doctoral Fee: $325.

This fee covers all costs forthe year in which the Ph.D. degree will be conferred, includingthe costs for the microfilm publication of the dissertation, publicationof the abstract of the dissertation in Dissertation Abstracts,issuance of a Library of Congress number and appropriate librarycards, binding two copies of the dissertation, one for use inthe program and one Xerox-printed copy in book form for the author.The Final Doctoral Fee covers the rental expenses for academicrobes for graduation and the cost of the diploma.

NOTE:All candidates for the Ph.D. degree must pay the $325 Final DoctoralFee at the Office of the University Registrar when they file theirapplication for degree.

Service Fee:

A service fee will be chargedto a student's account if a payment or a check negotiatedthrough Brandeis is returned by the bank for any reason.

Readmission Fee: $300.

Payable by a student who, afterwithdrawal, suspension, or dismissal for more than one year, hasbeen reinstated with the consent of the dean of arts and sciences.

Transcript Fee: $2.

Students, former students,and graduates should request official transcripts of their recordsfrom the Office of the University Registrar, Kutz Hall. The chargeis $2 for each copy issued after the first one, which is free.Requests by mail for transcripts must be accompanied by a checkin the correct amount payable to Brandeis University. Officialtranscripts will be issued only to those students whose Universityfinancial records are in order.

Diploma Fee: $45.

Payable by candidates for themaster's degree at the Office of the University Registrar whenthey file their application for degree.

Student Health ServicesFee: $339.

Entitles the full-time graduatestudent to use of the Health Services.

Student Insurance Fee (BrandeisPlan): $700.

Payment of the Insurance Feeentitles the full-time graduate student to participate in thebenefits of the Health Insurance Program. The fee is payable priorto registration and no portion is refundable. Student insuranceis optional for special students. Additional insurance options,including family coverage, are described in A Guide to UniversityHealth Services, which is available from the Office of HealthServices.

Parking Fee: $35-$150.

Payable annually at fall registrationfor privilege of parking an automobile on campus. Fee varies withassigned parking area.


The only fee that may be refundable,in part, is the tuition fee. No refund of the tuition fee willbe made because of illness, absence, or dismissal during the academicyear. A student who is withdrawing must notify the Graduate Schoolin writing; refunds will be based on the date of notificationand calculated in accordance with the following:

1. Tuition


Before the opening day of instruction:100% of the term's tuition.

On or before the second Fridayfollowing the opening day of instruction: 75% of the term's tuition.

On or before the fifth Fridayfollowing the opening day of instruction: 50% of the term's tuition.

After the fifth Friday followingthe opening day of instruction: no refund.

Requests for refunds shouldbe addressed to the Bursar's office.

2. Scholarship

In the case of a scholarshipstudent who withdraws, the student's account will be creditedwith the same proportion of the term scholarship as charged fortuition: 75% if the student leaves on or before the second Friday;50% on or before the fifth Friday and no refund thereafter.

3. Stafford Loans

In compliance with federallaw, special refund arrangements apply to first-time studentsreceiving aid under Title IV. Contact the Graduate School financialaid officer for additional information.

Financial Assistance

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To help students whose recordsindicate scholarly promise, the University makes available specialscholarships and fellowships and a variety of awards and workopportunities. All awards are granted and accepted with the understandingthat they may be revoked or reduced at any time for undesirableconduct or poor academic standing.

Ordinarily, no student mayhold a fellowship, scholarship, or teaching assistantship formore than two years of study for the master's degree, more thanthree years of study for the M.F.A. degree, or more than fouryears of study for the Ph.D. degree. Priority in making awardsis given to full-time students.

Students receiving financialaid from Brandeis University, whether in the form of a scholarship,fellowship, or teaching/research assistantship, are required tomaintain a superior level of academic progress.

All students contemplatingoutside employment that would require a significant portion oftheir time should discuss their intentions with their programadvisor.

Title IV Cancellations

If you have been awarded astudent loan (Federal Stafford or Perkins) you have a right tocancel all or a portion of your loan or loan disbursement. Todo so, please submit a written request to: Office of FinancialAid, Brandeis University, Mailstop 027, P.O. Box 9110, Waltham,MA 02454-9110.

A request for loan cancellationor adjustment must be made before the end of the academic yearor prior to leaving school whichever comes first, and must statewhich loan(s) and what amount(s) you wish to cancel. Cancellationof your awarded student loan(s) will most likely create a balancedue on your account. This balance would be due and payable uponreceipt of the statement.


A scholarship is an award ongrounds of scholarly ability that will be used exclusively forremission of tuition fees. Full scholarships and partial scholarshipsare available. Scholarship students are liable for all but tuitioncharges. No services are required of students for scholarshipawards.


A fellowship is an academicaward of honor to outstanding students to help them in furtheringadvanced study and research. The award may carry with it the obligationto participate in teaching and/or research duties. A fellowshiprecipient must pay tuition fees unless the award includes a scholarshipin an amount covering tuition.

Teaching Assistantships

Teaching assignments, whennot included in a fellowship award, are given normally to residentand post-resident students in the Graduate School who do part-timeteaching as part of their training and are paid. The Universityhas established teaching assistantships to enable distinguishedgraduate students to gain teaching experience while continuingtheir studies. Teaching assistants are eligible for other awards,including scholarships and fellowships.

Teaching assistantship appointmentsare made on the authority of the President of the University withthe approval of the associate dean of the Graduate School who,in turn, acts on the recommendation of a student's program chair.Appointments are made for periods of one year or one term andare renewable. The University reserves the right to terminateany appointment at any time for due cause. Conduct, character,or academic standing that is regarded as undesirable may constitutecause, but the University need not assign any reason for the terminationof an appointment at any time. All teaching assistantship appointmentsare made and accepted with this understanding, and neither theUniversity nor any of its Trustees or officers shall be underany liability whatsoever for the summary termination of a teachingassistantship.

Research Assistantships

Research assistantships areavailable in several programs, especially the science areas. Applicationshould be made to the chair of the graduate program.

Dean's Fellowship

Brandeis University establishedin 1995 the Dean's Fellowship. This fellowship was createdin order to encourage students from minority groups whose under-representationin the nation's Ph.D. population has been severe and long-standingto pursue doctoral studies in the humanities, social sciences,and creative arts at the Graduate School of Arts and Sciencesat Brandeis. The Dean's Fellowship will provide four yearsof funding with a nine-month stipend, assuming satisfactory academicprogress.

Students who are eligible forthis fellowship are Native Americans/Alaskan natives, Hispanic/Latinos,Filipinos, African-Americans, and Asian-Americans, who are UnitedStates citizens. In order to qualify for the Dean's Fellowship,applicants must be nominated by one of the following programs:American history, anthropology, comparative history, English andAmerican literature, interdisciplinary program in literary studies,music, Near Eastern and Judaic Studies, psychology, politics,or sociology.

Students who wish to be consideredfor the Dean's Fellowship should express their interestin the statement of purpose included with their application.

Tuition Grants

A limited number of need-basedgrants are available (up to a maximum of 25% of tuition for master'scandidates and 50% for Ph.D. candidates) to students who do notreceive program funding, and who are enrolled at least half-time.Students may apply for need-based grants by completing the CSSfinancial aid PROFILE.


Subsidized Federal StaffordLoans are available to U.S. citizens and permanent residents whoare enrolled at least half-time in a degree, certificate, or diplomaprogram and who demonstrate need for them by filing the Free Applicationfor Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). Graduate students may borrowup to $8,500 per year in subsidized money. Post-baccalaureatecertificate and diploma students may borrow up to $5,500 per year.The maximum aggregate limit for the program (including undergraduateborrowing) is $65,500.

Unsubsidized Federal StaffordLoans are available to students who are not eligible for subsidizedStafford Loans based on need. Applicants must still file the FAFSA.Graduate students may borrow up to a maximum of $10,000 a year($5,000 for independent post-baccalaureate students) with an aggregatemaximum of $73,000 in unsubsidized money. Eligible students mayborrow from the subsidized and the unsubsidized Stafford programsas long as the annual total does not exceed $18,500.

Repayment of a Stafford Loanbegins six months after the borrower ceases to be enrolled atleast half-time. The repayment period is 10 years, during whichtime interest is charged. There is no interest charged duringthe in-school period for subsidized loans. However, students arerequired to pay the interest during the in-school period or haveit capitalized and added to the loan balance for the unsubsidizedloan.

The terms for the above loanprograms are subject to federal legislation and may change. Additionalcurrent information is available from the Graduate School.

Students wishing to apply fora Stafford should contact the Graduate School for applicationmaterials.

Satisfactory AcademicProgress

Federal regulations requirethat a student receiving federal assistance make satisfactoryacademic progress in accordance with standards set by the University.The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences delegates the responsibilityto monitor academic progress to the individual graduate programs.Admission to the Graduate School is valid for one academic year.Graduate programs review students' academic progress and makerecommendations for readmission annually. Any student who is readmittedfor the following year is considered to be making satisfactoryacademic progress and is eligible for financial aid from federalsources.

Students who enter the GraduateSchool of Arts and Sciences must earn the Doctorate within eightyears, the Master of Arts within four years, the Master of FineArts within five years, and the Post-baccalaureate Certificateand the Diploma within two years from the inception of study exclusiveof leaves of absence (pro-rated for part-time study). Studentswho have passed the terminal point for the degree may apply tothe Graduate School of Arts and Sciences for an extension and,if approved, may be eligible for additional federal financialaid.

Courses of Instruction

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Listed on the following pagesare undergraduate and graduate courses of instruction for thefaculty of arts and sciences. Courses meet for three hours a weekunless otherwise specified.

Most courses are availableto all students qualified to take them. Access to some coursesis governed by the signature of the instructor. Other coursesimpose a numerical limit to preserve environmental conditionssuitable to the pedagogy the instructor employs; students increasetheir chances of gaining enrollment in such courses by participatingin pre-enrollment.

Each semester the Universitymakes a serious effort to ensure that numerous alternatives existby which to make progress toward University requirements; however,it cannot guarantee access on demand to a particular course orto a particular section of a multisectioned course.

Generally, a course is offeredwith the frequency indicated at the end of its description. Thefrequency may be designated as every semester, every year, ineven years (e.g. 1996-97), in odd years (e.g. 1997-98), everythird year, or every fourth year.

Courses numbered 1-99 are primarilyfor undergraduate students; courses numbered 100-199 are for bothundergraduate and graduate students; and courses numbered 200and above are primarily for graduate students. Undergraduatesmay not enroll in courses numbered 200 or higher without the writtenpermission of the instructor.

Among the courses numbered200 and higher are courses in the Heller Graduate School. Undergraduatesmay enroll only in those Heller School courses that are appropriatefor an undergraduate arts and sciences degree. Such courses arelisted in this Bulletin.

Suffixes after course numbershave the following meanings:

A or B semester course

C semester course meetingthroughout the year

D full-year course

E intensive course, twosemester course credits, in one semester

F half semester course,half-course credit (Graduate School of International Economicsand Finance only)

A semester course carries onesemester-course credit (four semester-hour credits) while a yearcourse carries two semester-course credits (eight semester-hourcredits). Exceptions are noted under the individual course descriptions.Certain courses do not count for rate of work and do not carrycourse credit toward graduation. Occasionally, courses are awardedadditional semester-hour credits, yet count as only one semestercourse toward graduation. All such courses are specifically identifiedin the course listing. Certain courses require a laboratory coursetaken concurrently.

A student may take either halfof a full-year course with a D suffix for credit with the approvaland consent of the course instructor on the appropriate form designatedby the Office of the University Registrar. Students who enrolledin full-year courses in the fall term are continued in the springterm automatically.

The University reserves theright to make any necessary changes in the offerings without priornotice.