Department of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies

Last updated: July 31, 2014 at 3:51 p.m.

The Philip W. Lown School of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies

The Philip W. Lown School of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies is the center for programs of teaching and research in the areas of Judaic studies, ancient Near Eastern studies, Islamic and modern Middle Eastern studies, and Jewish leadership studies. The school includes the Department of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies, the Hornstein Jewish Professional Leadership Program, and the Cohen Center for Modern Jewish Studies. Students also have the opportunity to participate in the work of Brandeis centers and institutes such as the Fisher Bernstein Institute for Jewish Philanthropy and Leadership, the Mandel Center for Studies in Jewish Education, the Sarnat Center for the Study of Anti-Jewishness, the Schusterman Center for Israel Studies, the Tauber Institute for the Study of European Jewry, and the Steinhardt Social Research Institute. Also housed in the Lown School is the National Center for Jewish Film (NCJF), the premier archives and circulating library of Judaic film and video in the Diaspora. The NCJF collection is a valuable resource for the study and documentation of Jewish history, art, and culture.

The microfilm collection of the Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives at Brandeis University, housed in the university's library, includes a vast array of primary sources bearing on American Jewish life, and supports the NEJS department's American Jewish history program. For detailed descriptions of the individual centers and institutes associated with the Lown School, please see under the section Research Centers and Institutes elsewhere in this Bulletin.

Objectives

The Department of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies (NEJS) is home to a strong and diverse international faculty who research the Bible and Ancient Near East, the modern Middle East, Jewish civilization from its beginnings through historical and contemporary times, Israel studies, and Rabbinic Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Our classes are taught on many levels, in disciplines including textual and literary studies, history, social sciences, intellectual theory and philosophy, religion, and the arts. In addition to classical languages, the department offers courses in three modern languages and their literatures: Arabic, Hebrew, and Yiddish. More information is found elsewhere in the Bulletin under each language name.

Undergraduate Major
Undergraduate students are welcome to study in the department as majors, as minors, or simply to take individual courses. NEJS graduates go on to the full range of programs and careers in law, health care, business, politics, writing, and the arts. Some NEJS grads build on their outstanding undergraduate education to continue their academic pursuits in doctoral programs. Others pursue Brandeis MA degrees such as the five-year NEJS MA, the DeLET program for Jewish educators, or the Hornstein Jewish Leadership Program.

The undergraduate major in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies, divided into three parallel tracks (see below), is designed to combine a broad education in the various disciplines and periods that constitute this field, with a degree of specialization in one specific area. It is the intent of the major also to introduce students to the critical study of Near Eastern and Judaic sources, classical and modern, within the academic context. Majors are strongly encouraged to diversify their courses within the department and to consider related courses in other departments in order to acquaint themselves with the different disciplines and approaches that Near Eastern and Judaic Studies embraces.

(For the major in Islamic and Middle Eastern studies, please see that heading in this Bulletin.)

Graduate Program in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies
The graduate program in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies, leading to the Doctor of Philosophy degree, is designed to train scholars and teachers in various areas of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies. A joint PhD program is also offered in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies and Sociology. On the MA level, the department offers general and specialized programs. Three 5-year BA/MA programs are available to undergraduate majors in the department: A BA/MA in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies, a BA/MA in Jewish Professional Leadership, and a BA/MA in Women’s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies. A two-year joint MA program is offered in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies & Women’s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies as well as a joint MA in the Department of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies (within the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences) and the Graduate Program in Coexistence and conflict (within the Heller School for Social Policy and Management). In addition, a two-year dual degree program leading to the MA in Jewish Professional Leadership and the MA in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies is available.

Learning Goals

The learning goals of the Near Eastern and Judaic Studies Department encompass the three categories stressed in Brandeis University's general learning goals: Knowledge, core skills, and social justice. This statement of the learning goals of NEJS reflects our conviction that knowledge, values, and skills are often interconnected in the university and in the lifelong learning process as well--indeed that articulating skills and social justice as they are embedded in knowledge acquisition is, for us, the most useful and concrete way of formulating our objectives.

Knowledge:
1. Students will understand the principal tenets and religious practices of one or more of the religious traditions currently taught in the department: ancient Near Eastern religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
2. Students will be familiar with and recognize scholarly conventions and contemporary knowledge concerning Near Eastern or Judaic Studies to critically assess claims in the academic literature of those fields and in the popular media.
3. By reading texts in their original languages, students will appreciate language as a shaper and reflection of the people and cultures they study.

Core Skills:
4. Students will be able to synthesize, as well as articulate orally and in writing, a cogent narrative about the history, religions, cultures, and societies of the Near East or those that developed from the Near East, including the Jewish experience generally.
5. Students will be able to frame questions, investigate problems, and evaluate conclusions using one or more academic disciplines or approaches (e.g., literary and artistic criticism, philology, historical analysis, social scientific analysis, women’s and gender studies, and religious studies).
6. Students will be able to situate texts, documents, traditions, ideas, artistic productions, and other data in their contexts and assess their meaning in the light of those contexts.

Social Justice:
7. Students will learn to appreciate diversity in and between religious and cultural traditions and thus contribute to greater understanding in the service of a more peaceful and just society.

How to Become a Major

Students who wish to major in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies meet with the undergraduate advising head and are assigned a faculty adviser in accordance with their individual areas of interest. Together with their adviser, they develop a plan of study designed to fulfill the requirements of the major and to meet their personal interests and needs. With the approval of the department, a limited amount of credit may be awarded for appropriate courses taken at other universities. For further details, please see below.

How to Be Admitted to the Graduate Program

The general requirements for admission to the Graduate School, as specified in an earlier section of this Bulletin, apply to candidates for admission to this program.

At the graduate level, the Department of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies is divided into three interdisciplinary areas: Bible and Ancient Near East, Judaic Studies, and Arabic and Islamic Civilizations.

Faculty

David Wright, Chair (fall 2014)
Biblical studies. Languages and literatures of the ancient Near East.

Jonathan D. Sarna, Chair (spring 2015)
American Jewish history.

Tzvi Abusch
Languages and cultures of ancient Mesopotamia. Ancient Near Eastern religions.

Guy Antebi
Hebrew language.

Marc Brettler
The Bible and its interpretation.

Bernadette Brooten (on leave academic year 2014-2015)
Christian studies.

Jonathan Decter
Sephardic studies.

Carl Sharif El-Tobgui, Director, Arabic Languages
Arabic Language.

Sharon Feiman-Nemser (on leave academic year 2014-2015)
Jewish education. Teacher education.

Sylvia Barack Fishman (on leave academic year 2014-2015)
Contemporary Jewry and American Jewish sociology and literature.

ChaeRan Freeze (on leave spring 2015)
East European Jewish history.

Sara Hascal (on leave spring 2015)
Hebrew language.

David Karjala
Arabic language.

Ellen Kellman
Yiddish language and literature. Modern Jewish literature.

Reuven Kimelman
Talmud. Midrash. Liturgy.

Jonathan Krasner
Jewish education. American Jewish studies.

Jon A. Levisohn
Jewish education. Philosophy of education.

Joseph Lumbard
Classical Islam.

Kanan Makiya
Middle Eastern studies.

Ari Ofengenden, Director, Hebrew Language and Literature
Hebrew language.

Antony Polonsky
East European Jewish history. Holocaust studies.

Bonit Porath
Hebrew language.

Jehuda Reinharz
Modern Jewish history.

Eugene Sheppard, Graduate Advising Head
Modern Jewish history and thought.

Esther Shorr
Hebrew language.

Ilana Szobel, Undergraduate Advising Head
Modern Hebrew literature.

Ilan Troen
Israel studies.

Visiting Faculty

Yehudah Mirsky
Schusterman Center for Israel Studies

Affiliated Faculty (contributing to the curriculum, advising and administration of the department or program)
Eva Bellin (Politics)
Edward Kaplan (Romance Studies)
Naghmeh Sohrabi (History)

Requirements for the Minor

The minor consists of a coherent set of five courses in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies, of which two may be cross-listed courses or courses taken at other universities.

A. At least one of the five courses must be in “Modern and Contemporary Jewish Studies” (see section C of the Judaic Studies track of the NEJS major below) and one course must be either in “Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies” or in “Early Post-Biblical Judaism, Early Christianity, Classical Islam, Rabbinic, and Medieval Jewish Studies.”

B. No more than two of the following semester courses may be applied toward the minor: YDSH 10a (Beginning Yiddish), YDSH 20b (Continuing Yiddish), ARBC 10a (Beginning Literary Arabic), and ARBC 20b (Continuing Literary Arabic). HBRW 10a (Beginning Hebrew) and HBRW 20b (Intermediate Hebrew).

C. Students are required to declare the minor in NEJS no later than the beginning of the senior year. Each student declaring a minor will be assigned a departmental adviser after conferring with the undergraduate advising head.

D. By departmental rule, a maximum of two semester course credits for courses taken at other universities, whether in the United States or abroad, may be accepted toward the minor in NEJS. Students are encouraged to seek advance approval from the department's undergraduate adviser for all courses intended for transfer credit. For courses taken in Israeli universities, one Brandeis semester credit will be given for a three-hour-per-week one-semester course; a two-semester, two-hour-per-week course; or two two-hour, one-semester courses. Nonresident credit for purpose (not numeric course credit) may be granted for summer Ulpan programs at qualifying Israeli university programs, based on the approval of the Director of Hebrew and Arabic Languages in conjunction with the Study Abroad Office.

E. No course with a final grade below C- can count toward fulfilling the minor requirements in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies.

F. No course taken pass/fail may count toward the minor requirements.

Double-Counting
No more than two courses that count for the IMES major or minor may count toward the NEJS minor.

Requirements for the Major

The department offers three parallel tracks for the major: Judaic Studies, Bible and Ancient Near Eastern Studies, and Hebrew Language.

Judaic Studies Track

A. Students must complete the Foundational Requirement with one of the following three options:

1. Students may complete NEJS 5a (Foundational Course in Judaic Studies), as early as possible in the major. This course is usually offered every fall.

2. Students may take an exemption exam in place of NEJS 5a. The placement exam is given twice a year, during the first two weeks of each semester. The exam will be given at one time only, in a proctored setting, and its date will be announced at least one month in advance. The version of the exam given in any year will be that of the NEJS faculty member teaching the course that academic year, who will also grade the exam. Students may take the exam no more than twice. Study sheets for each exam are available online. Students who pass the exam (with a B- or higher) will be exempted from NEJS 5a, but will not receive course credit, and will be required to take an additional course instead of NEJS 5a.

3. Students may successfully complete three of the following five Foundational Sequence courses: NEJS 111a (The Hebrew Bible/Old Testament), NEJS 127a (Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism), NEJS 140a (Under Crescent and Cross: the Jews in the Middle Ages), NEJS 140b (Early Modern Jewish History), and NEJS 135a (The Modern Jewish Experience). These courses may also count toward requirement C below (chronological distribution). However, if all three courses are also applied toward requirement C, one additional NEJS elective must be taken so that a total of 8 distinct NEJS courses are taken inclusive of requirements A, B, and C (below).

B. Students must complete at least seven other courses in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies, at least three of which must be taught by members of the NEJS faculty. Up to four may be cross-listed courses or courses taken at other universities. Courses used to fulfill the Hebrew requirement (see requirement D below) do not count toward the fulfillment of this requirement. However, 100-level Hebrew courses in excess of the requirement may be counted.

C. Students must complete at least one of their seven courses in each of the following three chronological periods:

Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies:
FYS 18a, 45a, NEJS 9a, 10a, 29a, 101a, 101b, 102a, 103a, 104a, 105a, 106b, 110b,  111a, 112a, 113a, 113b, 114b, 115b, 116a, 117b, 118b, 121b, 122b, 123b.

Early Post-Biblical Judaism, Early Christianity, Classical Islam, Rabbinic, and Medieval Jewish Studies:
IMES 104a, NEJS 3a, 25a, 123b, 124a, 125b, 126a, 126b, 127a, 127b, 128a, 130a, 140a, 140b, 144a, 149a, 155a, 155b, 166a, 166b, 177b, 179b, 186a, 186b, 188b, 190b, 194b, 195a, 196b, 197a.

Modern and Contemporary Jewish Studies
FA 76a, FYS 28b, 47a, IMES 105a, NEJS 29a, 133a, 134b, 135a, 137a, 137b, 141a, 142a, 142b, 144a, 145a, 146a, 147a, 153a, 153b, 154a, 154b, 158b, 159a, 159b, 162a, 162b, 164a, 164b, 165b, 166a, 166b, 167a, 169a, 170a, 170b, 171a, 171b, 173a, 173b, 174a, 175a, 176a, 177a, 178a, 178b, 179b, 180b, 181a, 181b, 182a, 184a, 185a, 185b, 187a, 189a, 190a, 191b, 193b, 195a, 197b, YDSH 10a, 20b, 30a, 40b.

D. In addition, students must complete the following three Hebrew language requirements:

1. Any fourth-semester Hebrew course except HBRW 41a. Exemptions will be granted only to those students who place out on the basis of the Hebrew placement test administered by the Hebrew program at Brandeis.

2. One course in classical Hebrew from among the following: NEJS 10a, 25a, 110b, 112a, 114b, 117b, 118b, 121b, 122b, 123b, 125b, 126a, 126b, 127b.

3. One course in modern Hebrew literature from among the following: NEJS 173a, 174a, 174b, 178a.

In no case may courses used to fulfill the Hebrew requirement count toward fulfillment of any other departmental requirement.

E. No course with a final grade below C- can count toward fulfilling the major requirements in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies.

F. No course taken pass/fail may count toward the major requirements.

Bible and Ancient Near Eastern Studies Track

A. Students must complete NEJS 9a (The World of the Ancient Near East).

B. Students must complete at least seven other courses in Bible and ancient Near Eastern studies, at least four of which must be taught by members of the NEJS faculty. Up to three courses may be taken in other departments at Brandeis or at other universities. Courses used to fulfill the language requirement (see requirement D below) do not count toward the fulfillment of this requirement.

C. As part of the seven courses, students must complete at least one course in each of the following areas:

(1) The Hebrew Bible/Ancient Israel: FYS 18a, 45a, NEJS 10a, 103a, 104a, 106a, 110b, 111a, 112a, 113a, 113b, 114b, 115b, 117b, 118b, 121b, 122b;

(2) Mesopotamia and Cuneiform: NEJS 101a, 102a, 116a;

(3) Early and Rabbinic Judaism, Christianity, Medieval Commentaries: NEJS 113a, 117b, 123b, 125b, 126a, 126b, 127a, 127b, 128a, 130a, 148b, 155b;

(4) An area outside of NEJS that broadens the contextual or methodological horizons of Near Eastern study (e.g., in classics, linguistics, anthropology, philosophy, or literary theory), to be determined in consultation with the student's advisor. ANTH 105a, 123a, 136a, 153a, 186b, CLAS 100a, 167b, 170a, 190b, LING 100a, 110a, 115a, 120b, 125b.

D. Students must study two languages of the ancient world, such as Akkadian, Aramaic, Greek, biblical Hebrew, Hittite, Ugaritic, or another approved ancient language. One language, generally Akkadian or Hebrew, must be studied to the fourth-semester level, and another to the second-semester level. In no case may courses used to fulfill this language requirement count toward the fulfillment of any other departmental requirement.

Students who choose biblical Hebrew as the main language, after taking (or testing out of) first-year modern Hebrew, must take a course in biblical grammar (GRK 20b, NEJS 10a, 113a, 206a) and a biblical text course (NEJS 110b, 112a, 114b, 118b, 121b, 122b. (NEJS 10a may be taken as a third-semester course).

E. No course with a final grade below C- can count toward fulfilling the major requirements in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies.

F. No course taken pass/fail may count toward the major requirements.

Hebrew Language Track

The Hebrew Language Track in NEJS is designed to enable students to become proficient in Modern Hebrew language. The majority of courses required by this track are taught in Hebrew, allowing students to maximize classroom time immersed in the language. Other courses may offer the option of readings in the original Hebrew, and/or include a separate Hebrew discussion section. Students may transfer two appropriate courses from the study abroad program provided they are taught in Hebrew and approved by the Hebrew track adviser; students must obtain permission from their Hebrew track adviser to count courses as part of the Hebrew track before starting the study abroad program.

The Hebrew track requires the following 10 courses (no double counting is allowed):

A. must complete the Foundational Requirement with one of the following three options:

1. Students may complete NEJS 5a (Foundational Course in Judaic Studies), as early as possible in the major. This course is usually offered every fall.

2. Students may take an exemption exam in place of NEJS 5a. The placement exam is given twice a year, during the first two weeks of each semester. The exam will be given at one time only, in a proctored setting, and its date will be announced at least one month in advance. The version of the exam given in any year will be that of the NEJS faculty member teaching the course that academic year, who will also grade the exam. Students may take the exam no more than twice. Study sheets for each exam are available online. Students who pass the exam (with a B- or higher) will be exempted from NEJS 5a, but will not receive course credit, and will be required to take an additional course instead of NEJS 5a.

3. Students may successfully complete three of the following five Foundational Sequence courses: NEJS 111a (The Hebrew Bible/Old Testament), NEJS 127a (Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism), NEJS 140a (Under Crescent and Cross: the Jews in the Middle Ages), NEJS 140b (Early Modern Jewish History), and NEJS 135a (The Modern Jewish Experience). These courses may also count toward requirement C below (chronological distribution). However, if all three courses are also applied toward requirement C, one additional NEJS elective must be taken so that a total of 8 distinct NEJS courses are taken inclusive of requirements A, B, and C (below).

B. At least one course in classical Hebrew (Hebrew readings with English language instruction) including but not limited to: NEJS 10a, 25a, 110b, 112a, 114b, 117b, 118b, 121b, 123b, 125b, 126a, 126b, 127b, 170a.

C. Hebrew 167b (Back to the Roots: The Revival of Modern Hebrew).

D. Two courses in modern Hebrew literature: NEJS 173a, 174a, 174b, 178a.

E. Two advanced level Hebrew language courses: HBRW 121b, 123a, 123b, 141a, 144a, 146a, 161b, 164b, 166b, 168a, 168b, 170a.

F. At least two courses in Israel studies (English or Hebrew language instructions): FA 68a, 76a, NEJS 145a, 145b, 147a, 154b, 177a, 178b, 180b, 185a, 189a, 191b. (Additional courses will be offered by Schusterman visiting scholars, scholars in NEJS and in other departments that can satisfy this requirement).

G. HBRW 97 (Senior Essay).

H. No course with a final grade below C- can count toward fulfilling the major requirements in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies.

I. No course taken pass/fail may count toward the major requirements.

Honors

Satisfactory completion of NEJS 99d (Senior Research) is required of candidates for degrees with honors. Students should start planning and preparing early in their career for their honors thesis and take courses with the faculty members related to that area. The undergraduate advising head should be contacted for assistance in the selection of a senior thesis adviser. Those proposing to seek honors must petition the department no later than September of their senior year.

Double-Counting
No more than two courses that count for the IMES major or minor may count toward the NEJS major.

Evaluation of Transfer Credits

A. By departmental rule, a maximum of four semester course credits for courses taken at other universities may be accepted toward the departmental major requirements. Each course transferred from another university must have the approval of the department in order to be acceptable for credit toward the major requirements. This rule applies to courses completed at any other institution, whether in the United States or abroad.

B. No more than two courses taken at special programs for overseas students may be applied. Students are encouraged to seek advance approval from the department's undergraduate advising head for all courses intended for transfer credit. If approved, these courses will normally count toward degree electives and not core, distribution, or language requirements for the degree.

C. Nonresident credit for purpose (not numeric course credit) may be granted for summer Ulpan programs at qualifying Israeli university programs, based on the approval of the Director of Hebrew and Arabic Languages in conjunction with the Study Abroad Office.

D. Students may be offered advanced standing on the basis of studies completed elsewhere. Students with the appropriate background and ability, for example, may place out of Hebrew language requirement. However, those who wish to move into the advanced text courses still need to take the Hebrew placement exam. In addition, students entering Brandeis for the first time, who are non-native speakers of Hebrew, who have studied at yeshivot or comparable institutions, or in other non-college-level programs, and who have demonstrated advanced knowledge in the regular Brandeis Hebrew placement exam, will be granted the opportunity to take an additional advanced placement exam for credit. Upon successful completion of that exam, a student will receive one course credit. This opportunity is available to students only at the time they first enter Brandeis. In addition, students who pass the Jerusalem Exam with a total of 91 or greater and who pass the Brandeis Hebrew placement exam, thereby gaining exemption from the Hebrew language program, will receive one course credit.

Undergraduate Internships

The Department of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies encourages students to participate in internships that integrate academic knowledge and practical experiences. It sponsors credit-bearing internships (NEJS 92a) for junior and senior majors and minors. Internships combine off-campus or on-campus work that provides significant learning in the areas of NEJS with academic study supervised by a departmental faculty sponsor. Students may count one NEJS 92a toward their major or minor. Students doing summer internships may register for course credit in the following fall semester. A minimum of a B+ GPA in NEJS courses is required for eligibility. For additional information, please contact the undergraduate advising head.

NEJS 92a involves as much work as a regular NEJS course. In addition to following the general internship guidelines established elsewhere in this Bulletin, NEJS internships must include each of the following:

A. Before the end of the add/drop period at the start of each semester, the NEJS faculty member who is supervising the internship must approve the written contract proposed by the student; the blank internship contract at www.brandeis.edu/registrar/forms should be used as a basis. This contract should at a minimum outline the following: the number of hours on the site, scheduled meetings with the faculty member supervising the internship, and significant academic readings that enrich and deepen the field experience.

B. The student must keep a detailed diary of the internship experience, to be shared with the faculty member.

C. The student must complete a substantive research project that synthesizes what has been learned from the internship and links it to appropriate literature.

D. The undergraduate advising head must approve, in advance and in writing, every NEJS 92a and b.

Additional information and forms may be found on the NEJS website.

Requirements for the Combined BA/MA Degrees

Brandeis undergraduates who are NEJS or IMES majors are invited in their junior year to apply for admission to the five year BA/MA. Students must complete all requirements for the BA at the end of the fourth year, including the successful completion of the major in NEJS or IMES. The MA is awarded in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies.

Program of Study
Fourteen courses are required:

A. Internal transfer credit: seven Brandeis undergraduate courses (NEJS, IMES, and/or approved cross-listed courses) numbered 100 or above for which grades of B- or higher have been earned.

B. Seven courses taken in the fifth year: four approved NEJS courses taught by NEJS faculty and three approved electives. Approved undergraduate language courses may be taken and count toward the required three electives.

C. Capstone requirement
All candidates for the BA/MA are required to complete a culminating assignment under the supervision of two regular NEJS faculty members. Students must select one of the following culminating assignments:

1. Write an MA thesis.
2. Complete a significant final project.
3. Take an oral examination.

To guide the student with this assignment, students may register and receive credit for one graded independent instructional class with their supervising NEJS faculty member. For students writing a MA Thesis, the appropriate course is NEJS 299a or b, "Master’s Thesis." Students preparing a final project may register for NEJS 295a "Readings for MA Projects." An Add/Drop form (from the Registrar’s website) must be presented in person at the Registrar’s office signed both by the professor and the graduate chair prior to the end of the registration period. A student electing a MA oral exam will not need to sign up for a course. The thesis or project requires a second reader from the NEJS faculty and a formal 1-hour defense of the thesis before the date established by the NEJS department.

The thesis is typically fifty to one-hundred pages and involves original research. The master’s thesis must be deposited electronically to the Robert D. Farber University Archives at Brandeis.

A final project might involve creating a curriculum, curating an exhibit including writing a catalogue, and/or creating a website.

The number of hours involved in producing a project is comparable to writing a thesis; only the format is different. Standards for evaluating the thesis and the project are also comparable.

The examination is one-hour, oral (rather than written),and typically tests factual knowledge, analytical skills, and ability to synthesize relevant material. It may include work covered in courses as well as new material. Students should establish with their examiners an agreed-upon list of materials that the examination will cover. Further details may be found on the NEJS website.

Resident Requirement
One year of full-time residence (the fifth year) is required subsequent to completing the BA.

Language Requirement
All candidates are required to demonstrate language proficiency, normally in biblical or modern Hebrew or in Arabic.

Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts / Master of Arts in Jewish Professional Leadership

The Hornstein BA/MA degree supplements undergraduate study in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies, Hebrew, or Yiddish with a master’s degree in Jewish Professional Leadership. Please see The Hornstein Jewish Professional Leadership Program for complete details.

Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts / Master of Arts in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies & Women's and Gender Studies

Brandeis undergraduates who are NEJS or IMES majors with either a second major in WMGS or a minor in WMGS are invited in their junior year to apply for admission to the BA/MA joint degree in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies & Women's and Gender Studies. Students must complete all requirements and earn the BA, including the successful completion of the major in NEJS or IMES prior to the start of the one-year master's program. The joint MA is awarded in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies & Women's and Gender Studies.

Program of Study
Fourteen courses are required:

A. Internal transfer credit: seven Brandeis undergraduate courses (NEJS, IMES, WMGS, and/or approved cross-listed courses) numbered 100 or above for which grades of B- or higher have been earned.

B. Seven courses taken in the fifth year: four approved NEJS electives and three WMGS courses approved by the program adviser. Between the BA and the MA, the following WMGS courses must be completed: a course in feminist research methodologies (WMGS 198a, the Feminist Inquiry course offered through the Graduate Consortium in Women’s Studies, or an alternative), WMGS 205a or another course designated as a graduate foundational course in women’s and gender studies, and two elective courses in WMGS, one inside and one outside the NEJS department.

C. Successful completion of one of the following: a comprehensive examination, a culminating project or a master’s thesis. If a master’s thesis encompasses both a NEJS and a WMGS component it will satisfy requirement E below. The master’s thesis must be deposited electronically to the Robert D. Farber University Archives at Brandeis.

D. Participation in a year-long noncredit Women’s and Gender Studies Graduate Proseminar.

E. Joint MA paper requirement: completion of a master’s research paper of professional quality and length (normally twenty-five to forty pages) on a topic related to the joint degree. The paper will be read by two faculty members, one of whom is a member of the Near Eastern and Judaic Studies department, and one of whom is a member of the women’s and gender studies core or affiliate faculty. NEJS 299b Master's Thesis may be taken for credit one semester only.

Resident Requirement
One year of full-time residence (the fifth year) is required subsequent to completing the BA.

Language Requirement
All candidates are required to demonstrate language proficiency, normally in biblical or modern Hebrew or in Arabic.

Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

Program of Study and Residence Requirement
Ordinarily, two years of full-time residence are required at the normal course rate of seven courses each academic year. At least eight of these required courses must be offered by members of the Near Eastern and Judaic Studies department. Students may not include courses taken to prepare for the MA language examination (HBRW 102a and b and below, or ARBC 40b and below) among these eight courses, but may include them among the required fourteen courses. Students must obtain prior approval from the MA adviser before taking courses outside of NEJS. Students who enter with graduate credit from other recognized institutions may apply for transfer credit for up to four courses, or, with prior approval of the MA adviser, candidates may receive transfer credit for up to four courses at a university abroad. First year students are required to participate in a weekly for-credit graduate Proseminar (NEJS 231a) during the fall semester and a biweekly noncredit Proseminar in the spring.

Advising
Students are assigned advisers from the Near Eastern and Judaic Studies department. Students must meet with their adviser(s) regularly and before enrolling in courses to ensure appropriate course coherency.

Language Requirement
All candidates are required to demonstrate language proficiency, normally in biblical or modern Hebrew or Arabic. The language requirement for Hebrew or Arabic may be fulfilled in one of two ways:

1. By enrolling in and receiving a grade of B- or higher in a 40-level or higher Hebrew or Arabic course, or by passing a classical Hebrew text course, or modern Hebrew literature course taught in Hebrew;
2. By passing the language examination offered by the adviser or by the Hebrew faculty or Arabic faculty. Students are permitted the use of an appropriate (hard copy) dictionary. Electronic dictionaries are not permitted.

Capstone
All candidates for the MA are required to complete a culminating assignment under the supervision of two regular NEJS faculty members.  NEJS 299b Master’s Thesis may be taken for credit one semester only. Students must select one of the following culminating assignments:

1. Write an MA thesis.
2. Complete a significant final project.
3. Take an oral examination

To guide the student with this assignment, students may register and receive credit for one graded independent instructional class with their supervising NEJS faculty member. For students writing a MA Thesis, the appropriate course is NEJS 299a or b, "Master’s Thesis." Students preparing a final project may register for NEJS 295a "Readings for MA Projects." An Add/Drop form (from the Registrar's website) must be presented in person at the Registrar's office signed both by the professor and the graduate chair prior to the end of the registration period. A student electing a MA oral exam will not need to sign up for a course. The thesis or project requires a second reader from the NEJS faculty and a formal 1-hour defense of the thesis before the date established by the NEJS department.

The thesis is typically fifty to one-hundred pages and involves original research. The Master's thesis must be deposited electronically to the Robert D. Farber University Archives at Brandeis.

A final project might involve creating a curriculum, curating an exhibit including writing a catalogue, and/or creating a website. The one-hour oral examination typically tests factual knowledge, analytical skills, and ability to synthesize relevant material. Further details may be found on the NEJS website.

The number of hours involved in producing a project is comparable to writing a thesis; only the format is different. Standards for evaluating the thesis and the project are also comparable.

The examination is one-hour, oral (rather than written),and typically tests factual knowledge, analytical skills, and ability to synthesize relevant material. It may include work covered in courses as well as new material. Students should establish with their examiners an agreed-upon list of materials that the examination will cover. Further details may be found on the NEJS website.

Requirements for the Hornstein-Near Eastern and Judaic Studies Dual MA Program

Hornstein-Near Eastern and Judaic Studies Dual MA Program
This program prepares future Jewish leaders to understand contemporary issues within the context of Jewish history, culture, and tradition. The program provides the knowledge, research skills, and practical tools necessary to envision and help shape twenty-first-century Jewish life. Graduates of this dual degree program receive a Master of Arts in Jewish Professional Leadership from the Hornstein Program, and a Master of Arts from the Department of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies.

Degree Requirements
The dual degree requires eighty course credits, usually completed in five semesters, including the summer between years one and two. Approximately thirty-six credits are taken as Hornstein courses, thirty-six credits (100-level or above) as NEJS courses (of which at least 24 credits are taught by NEJS faculty members) with the remaining credits taken as electives. All NEJS graduate students (regular 2-year MA and PhD) are required to participate in a weekly for-credit graduate Proseminar (NEJS 231a) during the first fall semester and a biweekly non-credit Proseminar in the spring. Students must also complete a comprehensive examination, thesis, or capstone project related to both Hornstein and NEJS learning. The remainder of each student’s program is individualized and is created in conjunction with advisors from Hornstein and NEJS.

Supervised Professional Field Experience
Supervised professional field experience forms an important part of the Hornstein program. It is designed to immerse students in the best professional practices within the Jewish community, to help students refine their practical skills, learn to turn theory into action, and become self-reflective and effective practitioners.

Field experience usually takes place in the summer and/or second year of the program and consists of approximately 150-250 hours of work managing a project jointly created by the student, the Hornstein faculty, and the supervisor in the field organization.

Myra Kraft Seminar in Israel
Students take a classroom seminar and then travel to Israel as a required part of the curriculum to examine contemporary issues in Israeli society and its relationship with diaspora communities.

Language Requirement
All candidates are required to demonstrate language proficiency in modern Hebrew. Please see language requirement for MA degree under Near Eastern and Judaic Studies in this Bulletin.

Capstone Project
Students must complete one of the three capstone options listed under the requirements for the NEJS MA, in a manner that reflects and integrates their study in this joint program.

Cocurricular Requirements

Hornstein Leadership Forum
Meeting periodically throughout the year, this required forum brings innovative Jewish leaders into an intimate setting with Hornstein students for conversations about Jewish leadership and decision-making. Students are involved in the planning and coordination of the seminar.

Betty Starr Colloquium
Students spend four days in New York City visiting the national offices of major and start-up Jewish organizations to explore aspects of the communal agenda with agency executives.

Milender Seminar in Jewish Communal Leadership
Students participate in a three-day seminar about Jewish leadership with an outstanding leader of the Jewish communal world.

Residence Requirement
The residence requirement is 4.5 semesters of full-time study or the equivalent thereof in part-time study.

Requirements for the Joint Degree of Master of Arts in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies & Coexistence and Conflict

Program of Study and Residence Requirement
Ordinarily, two years of full-time residence are required at the normal course rate of seven or eight courses each academic year.

1. At least eight courses must be taken in the Near Eastern and Judaic Studies department and must include the NEJS graduate Pro seminar (NEJS 231a) and joint MA capstone project and paper (see below). Students may not include courses taken to prepare for the MA language examination (HBRW 102a and b and below, or ARBC 40b and below) among these eight courses. Students who enter with graduate credit from other recognized institutions may apply for transfer credit for up to two courses that are comparable to NEJS offerings, or, with prior approval of the MA adviser, candidates may receive transfer credit for up to two courses at a university abroad.

2. At least eight courses must be taken in Coexistence and Conflict program. They include the six COEX core courses: HS 210a (Coexistence and Conflict: Theory and Analysis), HS 220a (Strategies for Coexistence Interventions), HS 227f (Introduction to Design, Monitoring and Evaluation, 2 credits), HS 230f (Coexistence Research Methods, 2 credits), HS 240a (Dialogue and Mediation Skills), and HS 244a (Responsible Negotiation). Students must also take POL 164A (Conflict and Peacemaking in the Middle East) and choose at least 4 credits in the list of COEX core elective courses.

All course selections and their relevance must be discussed with and approved by the NEJS Director of Graduate Studies and the COEX program director.

Language Requirement
All candidates are required to demonstrate language proficiency, normally in biblical or modem Hebrew or Arabic. The language requirement for Hebrew or Arabic may be fulfilled in one of two ways:

1. By enrolling in and receiving a grade of B- or higher in a 40-level or higher Hebrew or Arabic course, or by passing a classical Hebrew text course, or modem Hebrew literature course taught in Hebrew;

2. By passing the language examination offered by the adviser or by the Hebrew faculty or Arabic faculty. Students are permitted the use of an appropriate (hard copy) dictionary. Electronic dictionaries are not permitted.

Joint Master's Project and Paper
All students are required to complete an internship or independent fieldwork, with a concluding paper written under the supervision of two faculty mentors, one from NEJS and one from COEX. Students must develop an MA project designed to test their application of Coexistence and Conflict theory to practice while applying their background in NEJS. This will entail expanding students' policy and practical experience, and, under supervision, increasing their security and comfort levels at working in what is usually a contentious and sometimes dangerous field. In addition, the field project is planned to test and improve the breadth and depth of student's professional skills and to significantly increase their networks of collaboration.

The project will consist of either of the following options:

1. An internship of at least three months in a governmental or nongovernmental organization (consistent with the NEJS focus) assisting with the development and implementation of a policy or a program of coexistence intervention. Students will (1) identify an intervention or their particular part of an intervention; (2) set objectives and timelines; (3) secure partners and terms of references, where necessary for its implementation; (4) ensure that appropriate monitoring and evaluating techniques are built into the program design; and (5) write a final report on the intervention.

2. Independent fieldwork for at least three months in a conflict area (consistent with the NEJS focus). Such fieldwork will be designed to assist the generation and development of new coexistence and conflict management intervention options, and must be undertaken in partnership with policymakers or practitioners who are already working in the area. The report of this fieldwork includes feedback and evaluations from prospective partners already working in the area.

The option of doing a Master’s thesis can be discussed with, and approved by, the NEJS Director of Graduate Studies and the COEX program director.

Course Requirements
Students admitted into this dual degree program must fulfill the following course requirements:

MA NEJS Core Requirements (28 credits):

NEJS Graduate Pro-Seminar
4 Credits, Fall Semester

24 Credits
6 NEJS Core Electives
1 NEJS Elective that can be a COEX Elective Course

MA COEX Requirements (38 credits):

HS 210a Coexistence and Conflict: Theory and Analysis
4 Credits, Fall Semester

HS 220a Strategies for Coexistence Interventions
4 Credits, Spring Semester

HS 227f Introduction to Design, Monitoring and Evaluation
2 Credits, Spring Semester

HS 230f Coexistence Research Methods
2 Credits, Spring Semester

HS 240a Dialogue and Mediation Skills
4 Credits, Fall Semester

HS 244a Responsible Negotiation
4 Credits, Fall Semester

POL 164A 1 Conflict and Peacemaking in the Middle East
4 Credits, Fall Semester

At least two COEX Topical Courses (specific courses may change from semester to semester; choices will be reflected on the course list, which will be updated every year)
4 credit MA COEX Core Elective
4 credit MA COEX Core Elective (as a NEJS requirement)
1 more 2 credit COEX Elective for students doing an internship

Three-month COEX Practicum and Master’s Paper (one of two options):
Internship (4 credits + 2 credits for the Capstone + 2 credits for the Paper)
Independent Fieldwork (6 credits + 2 credits for the Capstone + 2 credits for the Paper)

Requirements for the Joint Degree of Master of Arts in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies & Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies

Students interested in the joint two-year terminal MA degree program must first be admitted to the MA degree program in NEJS in the regular manner.

Program of Study
Courses must include:

A. WMGS 205a, the foundational course in Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies.

B. A course in feminist research methodologies (WMGS 208b, or the Feminist Inquiry course offered through the Graduate Consortium in Women's Studies, or an alternate).

C. Two elective courses in women’s, gender, and sexuality studies—one inside and one outside the NEJS department. Normally, only one of these courses may be a Directed Readings course (WMGS 310a,b).

D. The remaining courses must be jointly approved by each student's NEJS adviser and by the NEJS Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies adviser.

E. Successful completion of one of the following: a comprehensive examination, a culminating project or a Master's thesis. If a Master's thesis encompasses both a NEJS and a WGS component it will satisfy requirement F below.

F. Completion of a Master's research paper of professional quality and length (normally twenty-five to forty pages) on a topic related to the joint degree. The paper will be read by two faculty members, one of whom is a member of the Near Eastern and Judaic Studies department and one of whom is a member of the Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies core or affiliate faculty. NEJS 299b Master’s Thesis may be taken for credit one semester only.

G. All candidates are required to demonstrate language proficiency, normally in biblical or modern Hebrew or Arabic. The language requirement for Hebrew or Arabic may be fulfilled in one of two ways:

1. By enrolling in and receiving a grade of B- or higher in a 40-level or higher Hebrew or Arabic course, or by passing a classical Hebrew text course, or modern Hebrew literature course taught in Hebrew;
2. By passing the language examination offered by the adviser or by the Hebrew faculty or Arabic faculty. Students are permitted the use of an appropriate (hard copy) dictionary. Electronic dictionaries are not permitted.

H. All candidates for the Master of Arts degree are required to pass a comprehensive examination.

Residence Requirement
Ordinarily, two years of full-time residence are required at the normal course rate of seven courses each academic year. Students who enter with graduate credit from other recognized institutions may apply for transfer credit for up to four courses, or, with prior approval of the MA adviser, candidates may receive transfer credit for up to four courses at a university abroad.

Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

Doctoral Programs
Students admitted to the NEJS PhD program are admitted to specific programs within the department. These are: Bible and Ancient Near East (BANE), Arabic and Islamic Civilizations (AIC), and Jewish Studies (JS). Movement from one program to the other is generally discouraged and is dependent upon a student's meeting of the requirements for admission into that program and acceptance by that program's faculty. Movement from one adviser to another within a program is likewise dependent upon the consent of the new adviser.

Program of Study and Residence Requirement
Three years of full-time residence are required at the normal rate of at least seven term courses each academic year. Students who enter with graduate credit from other recognized institutions may apply for transfer credit. By rule of the Graduate School, a maximum of one year of credit (seven term courses) may be accepted toward the residence requirement on the recommendation of the departmental adviser in consultation with the student's adviser. First year students are required to participate in a weekly for-credit graduate Proseminar (NEJS 231a) during the fall semester and a biweekly noncredit proseminar in the spring.

By March 1 of the second year, a student will submit a research paper of at least twenty pages analyzing primary and secondary sources to two NEJS professors for approval. The readers are to be selected by the Graduate Advising Head in consultation with the Chair of the Department. This may be a paper written originally for a NEJS course or one based on such a paper. This paper must be approved for continuation in the graduate program.

Teaching Requirement
As part of the graduate training program in NEJS, all PhD students are required to fulfill five semester-length teaching fellow or research assignments during the first four years of their programs, serving as apprentices to faculty mentors who provide feedback to their mentees.

Consortium
Students should also discuss with their advisers the desirability of taking courses at member institutions of the Boston Consortium.

Advising
Students are assigned advisers from the Near Eastern and Judaic Studies department in the program to which they were admitted. Students must meet with their adviser(s) regularly and before enrolling in courses, to ensure appropriate course coherency. The programs for each graduate area may be found in the departmental office and are posted on the NEJS departmental Web site.

Funding and Annual Evaluation
Scholarships and fellowships are generally renewable for four additional years, based on a favorable annual evaluation by each student's professors by May of each academic year. These evaluations will be shared with the students and will be part of the official file, along with grades. Additionally, university dissertation fellowships are available on a university-wide competitive basis for the final year.

Language Requirements
Students are required to demonstrate competence in primary and secondary research languages, according to the requirements of their specific programs. See departmental Web site for details.

All exams, including the Hebrew and Arabic exams, are composed by the students' advisers. The formats for these exams differ throughout the department, but they are typically three-hour examinations, where a hard copy of a dictionary may be used. Electronic dictionaries are not permitted. Typically, some part of a scholarly article must be translated. The questions and answers for this examination are all in English. 

Candidates are not normally admitted to the PhD program in Jewish Studies, including modern and American Jewish studies, until they demonstrate reading knowledge of modern Hebrew. Students who require additional work in this area should apply for the MA in NEJS.

Comprehensive Examinations
All candidates for the PhD are required to pass several comprehensive examinations. Specific requirements vary from program to program. Details may be obtained from the department website. In the semester in which students plan to take their qualifying examinations, they may sign up for Readings courses with the members of the faculty who will participate in those examinations.

Dissertation Proposal
After successfully completing all qualifying examinations and language requirements, students must submit their dissertation proposal to the department faculty by the end of the third year or the beginning of the fourth year (by the beginning of the fifth year for students in the program in Bible and Ancient Near Eastern Studies), after first obtaining the approval of their dissertation director and the other two members of the dissertation reading committee. Proposals should be up to six pages in length, plus bibliography. They should contain a clear articulation of the topic with rationale, a summary of current research in its area, its intended contribution to scholarship, methodology, sources, structure and table of contents, preliminary bibliography, and any other relevant material. Additional information about the proposal is available on the NEJS department Web site.

Dissertation and Defense
The dissertation, ordinarily between 250 and 400 pages in length, must demonstrate the candidate's thorough mastery of the field and competence in pursuing independent research; it must also constitute an original contribution to knowledge. Two copies of the dissertation are to be deposited in the office of the program chair no later than March 1 of the year in which the candidate expects to earn the degree. The student must successfully defend the dissertation at a final oral examination.

Requirements for the Joint Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies and Sociology

Program of Study
Students must complete a total of twenty-one courses. At least nine courses must be taken within the NEJS Department, and at least nine courses must be taken within the Sociology Department. In the Sociology Department, students must take four graduate seminars and four other sociology courses, PLUS Sociology 240a (Approach to Social Research Proseminar) which is taken EACH semester of coursework. In NEJS, students in their first year are required to participate in the NEJS Graduate Proseminar, a year-long, noncredit proseminar that introduces NEJS faculty and their research interests and methods required to participate in a weekly for-credit graduate Proseminar (NEJS 231a) during the fall semester and a biweekly noncredit Proseminar in the spring. Students in the Joint Degree program must complete a social science theory class, and also an appropriate course in quantitative methods. The remaining courses are open to student choice with the approval of the student's advisors.

Advising
Students are assigned advisers from the sociology department and from the NEJS department. Both advisers will work with the student to assure appropriate course coherency. An interdepartmental meeting between both advisers and the student should take place at least once a year.

Teaching Requirement
As part of the graduate training program in NEJS, all PhD students are required to fulfill five semester-length teaching fellow or research assignments during the first four years of their programs, serving as apprentices to faculty mentors who provide feedback to their mentees.

Residence Requirement
Three years of full-time residence are required at the normal rate of at least seven term courses each academic year. Students who enter with graduate credit from other recognized institutions may apply for transfer credit. By rule of the Graduate School, a maximum of one year of credit may be accepted toward the residence requirement on the recommendation of the chair of the program. First year students are required to participate in a weekly for-credit graduate Proseminar (NEJS 231a) during the fall semester and a biweekly noncredit proseminar in the spring.

By March 1 of the second year, a student will submit a research paper of at least twenty pages analyzing primary and secondary sources to two NEJS professors for approval. The readers are to be selected by the Graduate Advising Head in consultation with the Chair of the Department. This may be a paper written originally for a NEJS course or one based on such a paper. This paper must be approved for continuation in the graduate program.

Language Requirements
Candidates are required to establish competence in Hebrew and one modern language (normally French or German but, depending on the area of research, another language may be substituted). Language examinations will be administered by the student's advisers. The formats for these exams differ throughout the department, but they are typically three-hour examinations, where a hard copy dictionary may be used. Electronic dictionaries will not be permitted.  Statistics can be substituted for a modern language. Candidates are required to establish competence in statistics by successful completion of an appropriate Brandeis course in statistics.

Consortium
Students should also discuss with their advisers the desirability of taking courses at member institutions of the Boston Consortium.

Comprehensive Examinations and Graduate Accreditation
Before proposing and writing a doctoral dissertation, students must show competence in two areas of sociology through the Sociology graduate requirement process, pass a two-part written comprehensive examination in Jewish cultural literacy in the NEJS department, and pass an oral major field examination.

Candidates demonstrate Jewish cultural literacy in a two-part written examination, which has English and Hebrew components, and a follow-up oral examination. The Hebrew examination in primary sources is part of the cultural literacy examination. This examination gives students the opportunity to demonstrate their broad general knowledge of Jewish literature and cultures of the biblical, rabbinic, medieval, and early modern periods. The oral examination provides opportunity for further exploration following the written examination. Following the successful completion of the Jewish cultural literacy examinations, candidates demonstrate their particular field of expertise in contemporary Jewish societies through the oral major field examination.

The GAC is the sociology department equivalent to comprehensive examinations. Students elect two sociological areas of interest and, with the appropriate faculty member, create a contract delineating requirements for the completion of a portfolio in the specific area. The portfolio can include such items as completed courses, papers, independent readings, or bibliographies. Faculty advisers suggest readings, written work, or independent studies. When the GAC requirement is completed, there will be a comprehensive meeting to discuss the candidate's interests and direction in the field and the upcoming dissertation.

Dissertation and Final Oral Examination
Students should confer with their Sociology adviser concerning Sociology requirements.

A dissertation proposal should be submitted to the dissertation committee soon after the comprehensive examinations and Sociology requirements are completed. The dissertation committee should consist of five members: two each from the sociology and the NEJS departments and a fifth member from outside those departments. After approval of the proposal by the dissertation committee, the proposal is submitted to the department faculties for approval. Two copies of the dissertation are to be deposited in the offices of the program chairs no later than March 1 of the year in which the candidate expects to earn the degree. The dissertation committee must approve the dissertation and the student must successfully defend the dissertation at a final oral examination.

Special Notes Relating to Graduate Students

All NEJS graduate students (regular 2-year MA and PhD) are required to participate in a weekly for-credit graduate Proseminar (NEJS 231a) during the fall semester and a biweekly noncredit Proseminar in the spring. The primary aims of the fall and spring Proseminars are to foster an intellectual and social community among NEJS graduate students, to introduce students to faculty members and methodologies of their respective fields, to develop their professional skills, and to provide opportunities for students to present their own papers and receive constructive feedback from peers and faculty.

Five-year BA/MA, joint NEJS/WGS MA, and MA in Teaching Hebrew students are not required to take this course.

Special Note About Courses

Course Subgroupings

Ancient Languages (NEJS 100a-108b)
Bible and Ancient Near East (NEJS 109a-122b)
Rabbinics (NEJS 123b-127b)
Early Christianity (NEJS 128a-130b)
Non-American Jewish History (NEJS 131a-153b)
Jewish Thought (NEJS 153a-160b)
American Jewish History and Sociology (NEJS 161a-168b)
Jewish Education (NEJS 169a-171b)
Jewish and Hebrew Literature (NEJS 172a-180b)
Creative Arts and Near Eastern and Judaic Studies (NEJS 181a-184b)
Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies (NEJS 185a-199b)
Ancient Languages (NEJS 200a-208b)
Bible and Ancient Near East (NEJS 209a-222b)
Jewish Studies Core Methodology Seminars (NEJS 231a-235b)
Jewish History (except the Americas) (NEJS 236a-252b)
Jewish Thought (NEJS 253a-260b)
American Jewish History and Sociology (NEJS 261a-268b)
Modern Middle East (NEJS 285a-299b)
Reading Courses (NEJS 315a-389b)
Israel Studies (NEJS 145a/b, 147a, 154b, 173a, 174a/b, 177a, 178a/b, 179b, 180b, 182b, 185a, 189a, 191b, 211b, 253a, 259a, 285b)

Courses of Instruction

(1-99) Primarily for Undergraduate Students

FYS 18a Understanding Evil and Human Destiny
[ hum ]
Designed to introduce students to some of the Western classics that deal with the impact of evil on human destiny. Suffering, justice, and death are studied in their relationship with God, the world, and history.
Mr. Kimelman (Near Eastern and Judaic Studies)

FYS 45a JustBooks: Divine and Human Justice
[ hum ]
Explores the different conceptions of justice found in the Bible and other ancient Near Eastern texts. Are the concepts of divine and ancient justice overlapping? Should concepts of biblical justice inform modern discussions of justice? Offered as part of the JustBooks program.
Mr. Brettler (Near Eastern and Judaic Studies)

FYS 47a JustBooks: Justice, Self and Society in Jewish Film and Fiction
[ hum ]
Examines film and fiction for competing concepts of justice, loyalty, autonomy, and citizenship. How is social justice attained when individuals want different things? How can personal fulfillment and communal needs be balanced? Offered as part of the JustBooks program.
Ms. Fishman (Near Eastern and Judaic Studies)

NEJS 3a Introduction to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
[ hum ]
An introduction to the three major religions originating in the Near East: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Areas of focus include historical development, sacred texts, rituals, and interpretive traditions. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Decter

NEJS 5a Foundational Course in Judaic Studies
[ hum ]
A survey of the Jewish experience and thought, focusing on the varieties of historical Judaism, including its classical forms, its medieval patterns and transformations, and its modern options. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Kimelman

NEJS 9a The World of the Ancient Near East
[ hum ]
An introduction to the peoples, history, religions, institutions, and culture of ancient Mesopotamia, Syria, Israel, Anatolia, and Egypt from prehistory to 330 BCE. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Wright

NEJS 10a Biblical Hebrew Grammar and Texts
[ fl hum ]
Prerequisite: HBRW 20b or the equivalent as determined by placement examination.
A review of biblical Hebrew grammar followed by a survey of the major genres of the Hebrew Bible (e.g., Torah, history, prophecy, psalms, wisdom). Texts are read in Hebrew; the course is taught in English. Emphasis on literary and grammatical aspects of the texts. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Brettler

NEJS 25a Introduction to Talmud
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: A 30-level Hebrew course or the equivalent is recommended.
An introduction to Treatise Sanhedrin, on the subject of judicial procedure and capital punishment. Attention is paid to modes of argument, literary form, and development of the Talmudic text. No previous study of Talmud is presupposed. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Kimelman

NEJS 29a Feminist Sexual Ethics in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
[ hum ]
Analyzes a variety of feminist critiques of religious texts and traditions and proposed innovations in theology and religious law. Examines biblical, rabbinic, and Qur'anic texts. Explores relation to U.S. law and to the social, natural, and medical sciences. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Brooten

NEJS 92a Internship and Analysis in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies
Usually offered every year.
Staff

NEJS 98a Independent Study
Usually offered every year.
Staff

NEJS 98b Independent Study
Usually offered every year.
Staff

NEJS 99d Senior Research
Usually offered every year.
Staff

(100-199) For Both Undergraduate and Graduate Students

NEJS 101a Elementary Akkadian
[ hum ]
Introduction to Akkadian grammar and lexicon and cuneiform script. This course is for beginning students of Akkadian. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Abusch and Staff

NEJS 102a Elementary Hittite
[ hum ]
An introduction to the Hittite language, mainly through readings in Hittite royal annals, treaties, rituals, laws, and myths. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Wright

NEJS 103a The Early History of God
[ hum ]
Studies the background and development of monotheism in ancient Israel. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Wright

NEJS 104a Comparative Semitic Languages
[ hum ]
An introduction to and description of the Semitic languages, the internal relationships within this linguistic family, and the distinctive grammatical and lexical features of the individual languages. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Wright

NEJS 105a Music in the Bible and the Ancient Near East
[ hum nw ]
Studies music in the religious performances of the Bible, ancient Mesopotamia, Israel, Syria, Hittite Anatolia, and Egypt. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Wright

NEJS 106b Elementary Ugaritic
[ hum ]
An introduction to the language with study of various texts. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Wright

NEJS 110b Readings in the Hebrew Bible
[ hum ]
Prerequisites: NEJS 10a or 40-level HBRW course or permission of the instructor. May be repeated for credit.
A close reading of selected biblical texts. Topics may vary from year to year. Recent topics have included readings in the prophets. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Abusch, Mr. Brettler or Mr. Wright

NEJS 111a The Hebrew Bible/Old Testament
[ hum wi ]
Open to all students.
A survey of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament). Biblical books will be examined from various perspectives and compared to other ancient Near Eastern compositions. No knowledge of Hebrew is presumed. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Brettler

NEJS 112a The Book of Genesis
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: HBRW 122a or b, NEJS 10a, or permission of the instructor.
An in-depth study of the Hebrew text of Genesis, with particular attention to the meaning, documentary sources, and Near Eastern background of the accounts of creation and origins of human civilization in chapters one to eleven, and of the patriarchal narratives, especially those about Abraham. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Abusch

NEJS 113a The Bible in Aramaic
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: HBRW 122a or b, NEJS 10a, or permission of the instructor.
A study of the language and text of the Targumim, Qumran Aramaic Paraphrases, and the Syriac Peshitta. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Wright

NEJS 113b Law in the Bible and the Ancient Near East
[ hum nw ss ]
Open to all students.
A study of laws and legal ideas in biblical and Near Eastern law "codes," treaties, contracts; economic documents and narratives; the development and function of the documents and ideas; the meaning of the laws; and their significance for the various societies. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Wright

NEJS 114b Ritual and Cult in the Bible
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: HBRW 122a or b, NEJS 10a, or permission of the instructor.
A study of ritual and cultic texts of the Bible in Hebrew and their rites and phenomena with historical-critical, Near Eastern-environmental, social-scientific, and literary analysis. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Wright

NEJS 115b Gender and the Bible
[ hum ]
Open to all students.
The Hebrew Bible, a complex work, reflects a wide range of attitudes toward gender. This course examines these attitudes as they are reflected in issues such as the legal status of women, women in myths, leadership, prostitution, masculinity, and the gender of ancient Israel's deity. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Brettler

NEJS 116a Ancient Near Eastern Religion and Mythology
[ hum nw ]
Open to all students.
An introduction to the religion, mythology, and thought of the ancient Near East. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Abusch

NEJS 117b Dead Sea Scrolls
[ hum ]
An additional hour will be offered to study the texts in the original Hebrew.
Studies in the literature of Qumran texts, with particular attention to the exegetical literature. Usually offered every fourth year.
Mr. Brettler

NEJS 118b The Book of Psalms
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: NEJS 10a or a strong knowledge of biblical Hebrew.
Selected readings of biblical psalms. Special attention will be paid to religious ideas, literary forms, and poetics. Usually offered every fourth year.
Mr. Brettler

NEJS 121b Biblical Poetry: Love and Death
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: NEJS 10a or a strong knowledge of biblical Hebrew.
A close reading of biblical poetic texts, with a consideration of what makes these texts poetic. Texts will be chosen primarily from Song of Songs, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Job. Topics will vary from year to year and the course may be repeated for credit. Refer to Schedule of Classes for current topic. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Brettler

NEJS 122b Biblical Narrative Texts: The Historical Tradition
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: NEJS 10a or a strong knowledge of biblical Hebrew.
A close reading of a variety of biblical "historical" texts from Deuteronomy, Judges, Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles. The basic tools for biblical research and the literary study of the Bible will be explored. The newer methods of analyzing biblical "historical" texts will be discussed. Topics vary from year to year and this course may be repeated for credit. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Brettler

NEJS 123b Classical Biblical Commentaries
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: Advanced reading knowledge of Hebrew.
An intensive study of the Iraqi, Spanish and French schools of Jewish commentators on selected books of the Bible. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Brettler or Mr. Decter

NEJS 124a Arabic Literature, Hebrew Literature (500-1500)
[ hum ]
A comparative study of Arabic and Hebrew literature from before the rise of Islam through the fifteenth century. Studies major trends in Arabic poetry and fiction and how Jewish authors utilized Arabic motifs in their Hebrew writings, both secular and sacred, and sometimes wrote in Arabic themselves. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Decter

NEJS 125b Midrashic Literature: Sifre Deuteronomy
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: A 40-level Hebrew course or the equivalent.
An analysis of the midrashic method of the Sifre Deuteronomy. Emphasis will be placed on a close reading of the text, with a view to developing in the students the capacity to do independent analysis. Usually offered every fourth year.
Mr. Kimelman

NEJS 126a Intermediate Talmud
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: A 40-level Hebrew course or the equivalent.
Tractate Sanhedrin, chapter three, which deals with the issue of voluntary and compulsory arbitration and the binding nature of gambling agreements. Usually offered every fourth year.
Mr. Kimelman

NEJS 126b Agadic Literature: The Ethics of the Fathers with Avot d'Rabbi Nathan
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: A 40-level Hebrew course or the equivalent.
A study of the Mishnah Avot and its classical commentaries. Focuses primarily on literary and historical questions. Usually offered every fourth year.
Mr. Kimelman

NEJS 127a Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism
[ hum ]
A survey course of the Second Temple and rabbinic periods focusing on the Bible, the Apocrypha, the Pseudepigrapha, the Dead Sea Scrolls, the writing of Josephus and Philo, the Mishnah, Talmud, and Midrash. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Kimelman

NEJS 127b The Jewish Liturgy
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: A 20-level Hebrew course or the equivalent.
A study of the literature, theology, and history of the daily and Sabbath liturgy. Emphasis will be placed on the interplay between literary structure and ideational content, along with discussion of the philosophical issues involved in prayer. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Kimelman

NEJS 128a Introduction to Christianity
[ hum ]
Open to all students.
An introduction to Christian beliefs, liturgy, and history. Surveys the largest world religion: from Ethiopian to Korean Christianity, from black theology to the Christian right. Analyzes Christian debates about God, Christ, and human beings. Studies differences among Catholics, Protestants, and Orthodox. Usually offered every year.
Ms. Brooten

NEJS 130a The New Testament: A Historical Introduction
[ hum ]
Open to all students.
A study of the main parts of the New Testament, with emphasis on the contents of the books and the historical development of early Christianity. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Brooten

NEJS 132a Latin America and Its Jews: A Cultural History
[ hum ]
Through historical analysis of literature, theater and art, this course will explore the multiple understandings of Jewishness that arose in Latin America from the colonial times to the present, as well as how the idea of Jewishness and Jewish inclusion in society was incorporated into larger national conversations of identity and belonging. Special one-time offering, fall 2014.
Ms. Wassner

NEJS 133a Art, Artifacts, and History: The Material Culture of Modern Jews
[ hum ]
An interpretive, bibliographic, and hands-on study of the material (nontextual) culture of American and European Jews since 1600 taught in a comparative cultural context. Analyzes how objects, architecture, visual images, bodies, museums, and memorials can help us understand and interpret social, cultural, and religious history. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Smith

NEJS 134b Yiddish Culture in the Modern World
[ hum ]
An examination of the rise of modern Yiddish secular culture in Eastern Europe and North America with a particular focus on the literature it produced. Music, criticism, journalism, drama, film, and painting are also studied. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Kellman

NEJS 135a The Modern Jewish Experience
[ hum ]
Themes include Enlightenment, Hasidism, emancipation, Jewish identity in the modern world (acculturation and assimilation), development of dominant nationalism in Judaism, Zionism, European Jewry between the world wars, Holocaust, the creation of the State of Israel, and contemporary Jewish life in America, Israel, and Europe. Usually offered every year.
Ms. Freeze or Mr. Sheppard

NEJS 136a The Yishuv, the State of Israel and the Holocaust
[ hum ]
Proposes to describe, analyze and evaluate the intellectual discourse and the historiography around the Yishuv's (the Jewish settlement in Mandatory Palestine) role in saving European Jews during the Holocaust. Special one-time offering, spring 2014.
Mr. Friling

NEJS 137a The Destruction of European Jewry
[ hum ]
Open to all students.
Why did the Jews become the subject of genocidal hatred? A systematic examination of the anti-Jewish genocide planned and executed by Nazi Germany and the Jewish and general responses to it. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Polonsky

NEJS 137b A History of the Jews in Warsaw, Lodz, Vilna, and Odessa
[ hum ss ]
Examines the history of the four largest Jewish communities in the Russian Empire from the earliest settlement through the Holocaust to the present, comparing internal organization, different political and cultural allegiances, and relations with the majority population. Usually offered every fourth year.
Ms. Freeze

NEJS 140a Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages
[ hum ss wi ]
Surveys Jewish political, social and intellectual history in the domains of Islam and Christianity from the rise of Islam (622) to the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain (1492) and Portugal (1497). Topics include the legal status of Jews, Jewish communal organization, persecution and response, inter-religious polemics, conversion, the origins of anti-Judaism, and trends in Jewish law, philosophy, literature, and mysticism. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Decter

NEJS 140b Early Modern Jewish History
[ hum ]
Examines Jewish history and culture in early modern Europe: mass conversions on the Iberian peninsula, migrations, reconversions back to Judaism, the printing revolution, the Reformation and Counter Reformation, ghettos, gender, family, everyday life, material culture, communal structure, rabbinical culture, mysticism, magic, science, messianic movements, Hasidism, mercantilism, and early modern challenges to Judaism.
Mr. Sheppard

NEJS 141a Russian Jews in the Twentieth Century
[ hum ]
Examines Russian Jewish history from 1917 to the present. Focuses on the tsarist legacy, Russian Revolution, the creation of a new socialist society, development of Yiddish culture, the "Great Turn" under Stalin, Holocaust, post war Judaism, anti-Semitism, emigration, and current events. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Sheppard

NEJS 142a Modern History of East European Jewry
[ hum ]
A comprehensive survey of the history (economic, sociopolitical, and religious) of the Jewish communities in Eastern Europe from the middle of the eighteenth century until World War II, with emphasis placed on the Jews of Poland and Russia. Usually offered every fourth year.
Ms. Freeze

NEJS 142b Secular Jews: Lives and Choices from 1750 to the Present
[ hum ]
A survey of the lives of Jews who since 1750 have seen their identity in new ways, either as individuals without religious faith but still identified as Jews or as adherents of ideologies which provided alternative definitions of Jewish identity. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Polonsky

NEJS 144a Jews in the World of Islam
[ hum nw ]
Examines social and cultural history of Jewish communities in the Islamic world. Special emphasis is placed on the pre-modern Jewish communities. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Decter

NEJS 145a History of the State of Israel
[ hum ]
Examines the development of the State of Israel from its foundation to the present time. Israel's politics, society, and culture will be thematically analyzed. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Troen

NEJS 145b Ideology and Society in Contemporary Israel: Major Controversies
[ hum ]
Provides advanced students with a comprehensive understanding of several major trends in contemporary Israeli society, by presenting and representing major controversies among scholars of different approaches, paradigms, and disciplines (sociology, political science, law, cultural studies, etc). Usually offered every fourth year.
Mr. Troen

NEJS 146a World Jewry since 1945
[ hum ]
Open to all students.
Examines the post war Jewish world with special attention to Jewish communities beyond Israel and the United States. Topics include demography, the emergence of new centers, anti-Semitism, identity, and assimilation. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Sarna

NEJS 147a Visions for Constructing the State of Israel
[ hum ]
Investigates diverse visions expressing Jewish nationalist aspirations for a homeland, critically analyzing different historical streams of Zionism—political, cultural and religious—in addition to non-Zionist forms of Jewish nationalism. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Fish

NEJS 148b Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Jews and Christians: Sources and Interpretations
[ hum ]
Introduction to the classical Jewish and Christian sources on same-sex love and on gender ambiguity and to a variety of current interpretations of them, to the evidence for same-sex love and gender fluidity among Jews and Christians through the centuries, and to current religious and public policy debates about same-sex love and gender identity and expression. Usually offered every third year.
Ms. Brooten

NEJS 149a The Jews of Muslim and Christian Spain
[ hum ]
A survey of Jewish political, intellectual, and social history in the Islamic and Christian spheres from the beginnings of Jewish life in Spain until the expulsion in 1492. Students develop skills in reading historical, literary, and philosophical texts. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Decter

NEJS 153a Between Ecstasy and Community: Hasidism in Jewish Thought and History
[ hum ]
Explores Hasidism, from the 18th century until today, as one of the dynamic forces in Jewish life, mixing radicalism and reaction, theology, storytelling and music, thick community and wild individualism, deep conformity and spiritual abandon. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Mirsky

NEJS 153b Abraham Joshua Heschel: Spirituality and Action
[ hum wi ]
Abraham Heschel's Hasidic spirituality and militant social action provide a meeting ground for Jews, Christians, and Muslims. We examine his writings on prayer, mysticism, religious education, the prophets, the Holocaust, Israel, interfaith relations, civil rights, and the Vietnam war. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Kaplan

NEJS 154a World Without God: Theories of Secularization
[ hum ]
What is secularization? What does it mean to describe the modern world as wholly secular or independent of any prior religious foundations of beliefs? Is modern political identical intelligible apart from religion? Or does politics remain a translation of religious concepts and is all politics therefore a mode of political theology? This advanced undergraduate course surveys various debates concerning the historical process and philosophical-political significance of secularization, most especially the secularization of political norms. Concentrates on the history of European thought from the 17th century to the 20th century, with special reference to the encounter between Judaism and Christianity and modes of modern rationalist criticism. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Sheppard

NEJS 154b Israel: Dilemmas of Identity
[ hum ]
Explores the relations between pluralism, religious resurgence, secularism and democracy in our time through readings in history, literature, philosophy, sociology, theology and law. Focuses on one fascinating, contentious and deeply consequential place: The State of Israel. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Mirsky

NEJS 155a Maimonides: A Jewish Thinker in the Islamic World
[ hum ]
A study of the life, world, and thought of Moses Maimonides, the most significant Jewish intellectual of the Islamic world. This course traces his intellectual output in philosophy and Judaism, from its beginning in Islamic Spain to the mature works produced in Morocco and Egypt, in the context of the Arabic-Islamic milieu. Half of the course is dedicated to studying his Guide of the Perplexed, a Judeo-Arabic work that engages the demands of revealed religion and philosophical rationalism. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Decter

NEJS 155b Introduction to Jewish Legal Thought
[ hum ]
Traces the history of Jewish law from the Bible to the present. Jewish law is indispensable for understanding Jewish life, past, present and future, and is a rich source of reflection on law, ethics and religion. This course examines contemporary debates and controversies and explores its spiritual dimensions. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Mirsky

NEJS 156b A Philosophical Introduction to Judaism
[ hum ]
Explores selected topics that are central to Jewish thought and practice. An introduction to Judaism for those without background in Jewish texts and traditions, but also appropriate for those with background. Topics include covenant, ritual, idolatry, interpretation, gender, violence, chosenness. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Levisohn

NEJS 157a Jewish Business Ethics
[ hum ]
How can we think through the moral question of business and economic life? What might Jewish texts and historical experience have to teach us here? How do we think critically and constructively about business and Judaic sources alike, while trying to lead moral lives? All this is explored through readings, examples, and lively discussion. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Mirsky

NEJS 158b Yiddish Literature in the Modern Jewish Revolution
[ hum wi ]
Students with reading knowledge of Yiddish may elect to read the original texts.
Introduces students to Yiddish fiction, poetry, and drama created in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in Eastern Europe and the Americas. Readings include a sampling of works by classic Yiddish writers, but focus primarily on fiction, poetry, and drama by writers of succeeding generations. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Kellman

NEJS 159a Modern Jewish Philosophy
[ hum ]
Surveys the contours of modern Jewish philosophy by engaging some of its most important themes and voices. Competing Jewish inflections of and responses to rationalism, romanticism, idealism, existentialism, and nihilism. This provides the conceptual road signs of the course as we traverse the winding byways of Jewish philosophy from Baruch Spinoza to Emanuel Levinas. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Sheppard

NEJS 159b The Yiddish Classics: Fiction and Drama
[ hum wi ]
Reading and analysis of the major works of fiction and drama by the best Yiddish writers of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Taught in English using texts in translation. Weekly additional section for students with advanced reading knowledge of Yiddish who elect to read some texts in the original. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Kellman

NEJS 162a American Judaism
[ hum ss wi ]
American Judaism from the earliest settlement to the present, with particular emphasis on the various streams of American Judaism. Judaism's place in American religion and comparisons to Judaism in other countries. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Sarna

NEJS 162b It Couldn't Happen Here: Three American Anti-Semitic Episodes
[ hum ]
A close examination of three American anti-Semitic episodes: U.S. Grant's expulsion of the Jews during the Civil War, the Leo Frank case, and the publication of Henry Ford's The International Jew. What do these episodes teach us about anti-Semitic prejudice, about Jews, and about America as a whole? Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Sarna

NEJS 163b Half-Jews, Queer-Jews, and Bu-Jews: Mapping Jewish Identities in America
[ hum ]
Examines the various contours of Jewish identity in America from a sociological perspective. It begins with three fundamental assumptions: 1) that identities, including Jewish identity, are fluid, dynamic, and constantly in production 2) that identities are socially constructed and historically contingent and 3) that the discourse on religion, race, ethnicity, and gender shapes the production of Jewish identities. The class is designed to probe the multiple and often contradictory identities of contemporary American Jews, paying particular attention to the margins where Jewish identity is most contested and creatively remade. Central to this course are a series of assignments that ask you to think critically about the everyday experience of Judaism in America. Special one-time offering, fall 2014.
Ms. Sigalow

NEJS 164a Judaism Confronts America
[ hum ]
Examines, through a close reading of selected primary sources, central issues and tensions in American Jewish life, paying attention to their historical background and to issues of Jewish law. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Sarna

NEJS 164b The Sociology of the American Jewish Community
[ hum ss ]
Open to all students.
A survey exploring transformations in modern American Jewish societies, including American Jewish families, organizations, and behavior patterns in the second half of the twentieth century. Draws on social science texts, statistical studies, and qualitative research; also makes use of a broad spectrum of source materials, examining evidence from journalism, fiction, film, and other cultural artifacts. Usually offered every year.
Ms. Fishman

NEJS 165b Changing Roles of Women in American Jewish Societies
[ hum ]
Open to all students.
The lives of American Jews, and especially American Jewish women, have been radically transformed by demographic changes and by American Jewish feminism. These dramatic transformations affect secular and Jewish education for women, personal options and the formation of Jewish families, a growing participation of women in public Jewish life, and a new awareness of women's issues. Usually offered every fourth year.
Ms. Fishman

NEJS 166a Carnal Israel: Exploring Jewish Sexuality from Talmudic Times to the Present
[ hum ]
Explores the construction of Jewish sexuality from Talmudic times to the present. Themes include rabbinic views of sex, niddah, illicit relations, masculinity, medieval erotic poetry, Ashkenazi and Sephardic sexual practices, and sexual symbolism in mystic literature; the discourse on sex, race, and nationalism in Europe; debates about masculinity, sexual orientation, and stereotypes in America and Israel. Usually offered every third year.
Ms. Freeze

NEJS 166b Who is a Jew? Identity, Conversion, and Citizenship
[ hum ]
Examines the dynamics of conversion to and from Judaism from the rabbinic period to the present. Themes include the construction of identity, the place of the convert in the Jewish and non-Jewish worlds, intermarriage and family, as well as social and legal dilemmas. Usually offered every year.
Ms. Freeze

NEJS 167a Twentieth-Century Jewish Immigration to the United States
[ hum ss ]
Open to all students.
A historical survey of twentieth-century Jewish immigration to the United States, including East European, Sephardic, Cuban, Persian, Mizrahi, and Soviet Jewish immigrations. Regular readings will be supplemented by primary sources, immigrant fiction, and film. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Sarna

NEJS 168b Toward Religious Pluralism: American Religious Conflicts and Conciliations
[ hum ]
Covers episodes that take place from the Puritans' New World arrival to the publication of Herberg's Protestant-Catholic-Jew. It is impossible to cover every religious group and conflict during this time period. The topics covered in this course, therefore, are limited to groups and moments that best capture the evolution of American religion and its eventual "Judeo-Christian" pluralistic form. Special one-time offering, spring 2015.
Mr. Eleff

NEJS 169a Reading the Classroom as Text
[ hum ]
Yields six semester-hour credits towards rate of work and graduation. Prerequisite: Student must have a teaching position in an area religious school which serves as a "lab" and "experience" site.
In this experiential course, students analyze "records of practice" from their own and other's classrooms and situate their classroom experience in a broader conversation about the purposes, pedagogies and outcomes of religious education and the role of supplementary schools. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Feiman-Nemser

NEJS 170a Studying Sacred Texts
[ hum ]
What does it mean to study a sacred text? What are the problems with doing so? What is sacred about a sacred text? How is studying a sacred text similar to and different from studying other texts? How do different religious traditions study texts differently? Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Levisohn

NEJS 170b Jewish Education in Modern America
[ hum ]
Draws on history, philosophy, and education to explore how Jewish education has changed from the late 19th century to the present, where and why it has succeeded and failed, what kind of Jewish education is needed now and in the future. Usually offered every other year.
Ms. Feiman-Nemser

NEJS 171a Modern Jewish Literatures: Text, Image and Context
[ hum wi ]
Introduces important works of modern Jewish literature, graphic fiction, and film. Taking a comparative approach, it addresses major themes in contemporary Jewish culture, interrogates the "Jewishness" of the works and considers issues of language, poetics, and culture significant to Jewish identity. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Kellman

NEJS 171b Tikkun Olam/Repairing the World: Service and Social Justice in Theory and Practice
[ hum ]
What does tikkun olam mean? What is a life of service? What should one learn from service-learning? Does "social justice" actually do any good? This is a service-learning course, and includes a service component in the field. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Levisohn

NEJS 173a Trauma and Violence in Israeli Literature and Film
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: HBRW 141a, 143a, 144a, 146a, or permission of the instructor. Taught in Hebrew.
Explores trauma and violence in Israeli Literature, film, and art. Focuses in man-made disasters, war and terrorism, sexual and family violence, and murder and suicide, and examines their relation to nationalism, Zionism, gender, and sexual identity. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Szobel

NEJS 173b American Jewish Writers in the Twentieth Century
[ hum ]
American Jewish fiction in the twentieth century presents a panorama of Jewish life from immigration through contemporary times. Short stories, novels, and memoirs illuminate how changing educational and occupational opportunities, transformations in family life, shifting relationships between the genders, and conflict between Jewish and American value systems have played themselves out in lives of Jewish Americans. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Fishman

NEJS 174a Minorities and Others in Israeli Literature and Culture
[ hum ]
Taught in Hebrew.
An exploration of poetics and identity in modern Hebrew literature. By offering a feminist and psychoanalytic reading of various Hebrew texts, this seminar explores questions of personal and national identity, otherness, visibility, and marginality in the Israeli context. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Szobel

NEJS 174b Israeli Women Writers on War and Peace
[ hum ]
Taught in Hebrew.
An exploration of nationalism and gender in Modern Hebrew literature. By discussing various Hebrew texts and Israeli works of art and film, this course explores women's relationship to Zionism, war, peace, the state, politics, and processes of cultural production. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Szobel

NEJS 175a Jews and Gender in Eastern Europe: Tradition and Transformation
[ hum ]
Examines gender roles in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Eastern European Jewish culture, with a focus on transformation in gender relations, education, and religious practices. Readings are drawn from Yiddish and Hebrew prose, poetry, and memoir literature, with secondary sources in cultural history. Usually offered every third year.
Ms. Kellman

NEJS 176a Seminar in American Jewish Fiction: Philip Roth and Cynthia Ozick
[ hum wi ]
Focusing in depth on the works of two major American Jewish writers, Philip Roth and Cynthia Ozick, and paying close attention to their development as artists and to the evolution of their explorations of Jewish themes, this course will offer students the opportunity to delve into each author's oeuvre. Usually offered every fourth year.
Ms. Fishman

NEJS 176b Jewish Graphic Novels
[ hum ]
Examines the complex genre of the Jewish graphic novel. Explores how Jews have used graphic narratives to grapple with issues of acculturation, trauma, and identity. A historical survey accompanies readings of contemporary works by American, Israeli and European authors. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Kellman

NEJS 177a The Holocaust in Israeli and Jewish Literature
[ hum ]
A broad survey of Holocaust writings in Modern Jewish literature. Examines the psychological, social, moral, and aesthetic challenges involved in representing the Holocaust in Israeli, American, and European context through literary texts, theoretical research, works of art, and film. Taught in English. Usually offered every third year.
Ms. Szobel

NEJS 177b Judeo-Arabic Literature
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: ARBC 30a.
Surveys Judeo-Arabic literature including literary, epistolary, exegetic, theological and philosophical genres. Authors include Saadia Gaon, Judah Halevi, Moses Ibn Ezra, Moses Maimonides, and Ibn Shahin. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Decter

NEJS 178a Love, Sex, and Power in Israeli Culture
[ hum ]
Taught in Hebrew.
Explores questions of romance, gender, marriage, and jealousy in the Israeli context by offering a feminist and psychoanalytic reading of Hebrew texts, works of art, and film. Usually offered every third year.
Ms. Szobel

NEJS 178b Masculinity and Femininity in Israeli Film, Literature, and Culture
[ hum ]
Taught in English.
Focuses on Israeli film, literature, and culture, exploring how film and literature represent and establish masculinity and femininity. Examines the ways in which film and literature reflect the politics, religions, conflicts, and ideologies of Israeli society. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Szobel

NEJS 179b The Israeli Society: Sociological and Anthropological Perspectives
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: 4 semesters of Hebrew. Course to be taught at Brandeis-Middlebury program in Israel.
Discusses selected issues which express sociological and cultural structures of Israeli society in the twenty-first century. Among the issues: cultural and ethnical conflicts; social segregation, inequalities and class mobility; the cultural and historical roots of contemporary Israeli politics; local leadership among periphery areas of Israel. usually offered every year.
Mr. Dahan

NEJS 180b Introduction to Israeli Literature, Film, and Culture
[ hum ]
Examines trends and myths in modern Hebrew literature. Looking at both central, established and edgy, new stories, poems and films, the course examines various aspects of the way Israelis talk to each other and the world, and presents a multilayered--often conflicting--picture of Israeli culture through different voices and mediums. Taught in English. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Szobel

NEJS 181a Jews on Screen: "Cohen's Fire Sale" to the Coen Brothers
[ hum ]
Open to all students.
Survey course focusing on moving images of Jews and Jewish life in fiction and factual films. Includes early Russian and American silents, home movies of European Jews, Yiddish feature films, Israeli cinema, independent films, and Hollywood classics. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Rivo

NEJS 181b Film and the Holocaust
[ hum ]
Open to all students.
Examines the medium of film, propaganda, documentary, and narrative fiction relevant to the history of the Holocaust. The use of film to shape, justify, document, interpret, and imagine the Holocaust. Beginning with the films produced by the Third Reich, the course includes films produced immediately after the events, as well as contemporary feature films. The focus will be how the film medium, as a medium, works to (re)present meaning(s). Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Rivo

NEJS 182a Jewish Life in Film and Fiction
[ hum ]
Film and fiction are windows through which we can view transformations in American Jewish life. This course concentrates on cinematic and literary depictions of religious, socioeconomic, and cultural change over the past half-century. It does this through films and fiction, which reflect and help to shape shifting definitions of the American Jew. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Fishman

NEJS 182b Melting Pot to Multiculturalism: Israeli Identities
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: 4 semesters of Hebrew. Course to be taught at Brandeis-Middlebury program in Israel.
Explores how Israeli are produced, maintained, and transformed in the Israeli Cinema and TV since the establishment of Israel in 1948 until today. By watching movies and discussing them in class, students explore the various identities in Israeli society as well as major changes the Israeli society underwent from its beginning until out times. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Manor

NEJS 184a Introduction to Jewish Museum Studies
[ hum ]
Using readings, case studies, field trips, and class discussions, this course gives students introductory theoretical, historical, bibliographic, and hands-on skills for interpreting and producing exhibitions, museums, and historic sites in American, Europe, and Israel. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Smith

NEJS 185a Conflict and Consensus in Israeli Society; Topics in Israeli Social History
[ hum ]
Not recommended for first year students.
Focuses on key topics in the shaping of the Israeli experience, including Zionist colonization; absorption of immigrants; shaping Jewish identity, personal and national, in a secular sense; and homeland/Diaspora relations. Comparative perspectives are employed. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Troen

NEJS 185b The Making of the Modern Middle East
[ hum nw ss wi ]
Open to all students.
Discusses the processes that led to the emergence of the modern Middle East: disintegration of Islamic society, European colonialism, reform and reaction, and the rise of nationalism and the modern states. Usually offered every second year.
Staff

NEJS 186a Introduction to the Qur'an
[ hum nw ]
Traces the history of the Qur'an as text, its exegesis, and its role in inter-religious polemics, law, theology, and politics. Examines the role of the Qur'an in Islamic teachings and its global impact. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Lumbard

NEJS 186b The Quran: Composition, Collection, and Commentary
[ hum ]
Prerequisites: IMES 104a or NEJS 186a or permission of the instructor.
Examines the historical development and collection of the Quran, and the emergence of the different schools of Quranic commentary within various branches of Islam throughout the Islamic world and the central themes upon which they focus. Emphasis is placed upon the guiding principles of Quranic commentary and the way in which they give rise to a hermeneutical tradition that is particular to Islam and has shaped the lives of Muslims around the globe. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Lumbard

NEJS 187a Political Islam
[ hum nw wi ]
Traces the recent reemergence of Islam by examining its position in modern Middle Eastern socioeconomic and political life. Uses Egypt, Syria, Algeria, Afghanistan, and Iran as major test cases for assessing the success of political Islam. Usually offered every second year.
Staff

NEJS 188b Islam and Religious Diversity
[ hum nw ]
Examines the myriad ways in which Muslims from varying disciplines and different times have understood the religious other. Drawing upon this historical background, this course also analyzes contemporary approaches to the question of the religious other in Islam. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Lumbard

NEJS 189a The Arab-Israeli Conflict
[ hum ss ]
Consideration of Arab-Jewish relations, attitudes, and interactions from 1880 to the present. Emphasis on social factors and intellectual currents and their impact on politics. Examines the conflict within its international setting. Usually offered every third year.
Staff

NEJS 190a Describing Cruelty
[ hum wi ]
Grapples with the difficult subject of cruelty. Focus is on political or public cruelty in the non-Western world with a particular emphasis on the modern Middle East. The method is comparative and involves critical examination of the intellectual, visual, and literary works that engage with the phenomenon. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Makiya

NEJS 190b Islamic Philosophy
[ hum ]
Prerequisite: IMES 104a or NEJS 186a or a course on Islam.
An examination of the development and teachings of the Islamic philosophical tradition, covering its development from the Greek philosophical tradition and in response to Islamic teachings, and the relationship between Islamic philosophy and theology up to the Safavid period. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Lumbard

NEJS 191b Jewish Messianism from Antiquity to Zionism
[ hum ]
Messianism is an important component in Jewish history. This course examines the messianic idea as a religious, political, and sociological phenomenon in modern Jewish history. Examining how the messianic narrative entered Jewish political discourse enables a critical discussion of its role in Zionist activities as an example of continuity or discontinuity with an older tradition. Usually offered every year.
Staff

NEJS 193b Walking the Land: Religious Pilgrimage and Modern Hiking in Israel, Palestine, and the Holy Land
[ hum ]
Explores the spectrum of religious and political meanings attached to Israel/Palestine/the Holy Land, and how those understandings have been articulated in ancient and modern times through the act of walking. Special one-time offering, spring 2014.
Mr. Rabineau

NEJS 194b Sufi Teachings
[ hum nw ]
An examination of the teaching and practices of the Sufi tradition. Explores the foundations of Sufism, its relation to other aspects of Islam, the development of Sufi teachings in both poetry and prose, and the manner in which Sufism is practiced in lands as diverse as Egypt, Turkey, Iran, India, Malaysia, and Europe. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Lumbard

NEJS 195a Muhammad: The History of a Prophet
[ hum ]
Studies the life of Muhammad based upon the earliest biographical accounts and the academic analyses in both Islamic and non-Islamic sources, accompanied by an examination of his legacy in different aspects of Islam, such as Shi'ism and Sufism. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Lumbard

NEJS 196b The Middle Eastern City: Intersections of Art, Literature and History
[ hum nw ]
Begins with the pre-modern Middle Eastern city, old constructs that are constitutive of identity, and concludes by examining the culture and forms of Jerusalem, Mecca, Cairo, Tehran, Beirut and Baghdad. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Makiya

NEJS 197a Survey of Islamic Law
[ hum ]
After surveying the development of Islamic law from the classical to the modern period, students explore the principles of juristic interpretation as well as legal doctrine in the fields of ritual, family, and penal law, with some attention also given to Islamic legal education and judicial practice. Underlying themes include the authority and moral-ethical grounding of the law, the law’s conception of the human subject to whom it applies, and the relationship of law to the political organization of the state. Concludes with an examination of the issues surrounding the interpretation and application of Islamic law in contemporary Muslim societies. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. El-Tobgui

NEJS 197b Political Cultures of the Middle East
[ hum nw wi ]
Explores the way in which people make assumptions about power, authority, and justice. Focuses on Iran, Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, and Iraq, and works through. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Makiya

(200 and above) Primarily for Graduate Students

NEJS 200b Old Babylonian Akkadian Texts
Prerequisite: NEJS 101a or the equivalent. Formerly offered as NEJS 101b.
Review of grammar and reading of old Babylonian historical inscriptions, laws, letters, and literary texts. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Abusch and Staff

NEJS 201a Akkadian Literary Texts I
Prerequisite: NEJS 200b or the equivalent. Formerly offered as NEJS 200a.
Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Abusch

NEJS 201b Akkadian Literary Texts II
Prerequisite: NEJS 201a or the equivalent. Formerly offered as NEJS 200b.
Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Abusch

NEJS 202a Akkadian Mythological/Religious Texts I
Prerequisite: NEJS 200b or the equivalent.
Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Abusch

NEJS 202b Akkadian Mythological/Religious Texts II
Prerequisite: NEJS 202a or the equivalent.
Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Abusch

NEJS 206a Advanced Northwest Semitics
Continued reading of various Northwest Semitic texts (Ugaritic, Phoenician, Aramaic, Moabite, Deir Allah, Hebrew inscriptions, etc.) with attention to historical grammar and historical context. Topics vary from year to year; may be repeated for credit. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Wright

NEJS 208a Biblical Hebrew Composition
Prerequisite: An advanced knowledge of biblical Hebrew.
An advanced course in biblical Hebrew grammar. The grammar of biblical Hebrew will be reviewed and extended through translation of English prose and poetry into biblical Hebrew. Usually offered every fourth year.
Mr. Brettler

NEJS 210b Studying Jewish Texts
Open to students in the MAT program (Jewish Day School) and Hornstein students only.
Introduces the genres and texts of rabbinic literature and the diverse array of methods with which these texts are studied, taught, and used. Usually offered every year in the summer.
Ms. Naditch

NEJS 211b The History of Israelite Religions
Examines recent scholarly reconstructions of the development and nature of popular and elite-sanctioned religions in ancient Israel in view of textual and archaeological evidence. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Wright

NEJS 213b Teaching the Bible
Explores major issues concerning teaching biblical texts and "smaller" issues such as syllabus design and effective teaching and learning. Usually offered every third year.

NEJS 231a Graduate Proseminar in Near Eastern and Judaic Studies
This graduate seminar, required for master’s and doctoral students, explores theoretical and critical texts of the humanities and social sciences and their connection to diverse fields within Near Eastern and Judaic Studies. The course has four main objectives: (1) To familiarize students with basic theoretical concepts underlying scholarly works in history, religion, culture, language, literary and textual studies, social and political science, law, education, and women’s and gender studies; (2) To develop a critical approach to texts; (3) To develop students’ professional skills including oral presentation skills; (4) To create an intellectual community of graduate students from different disciplinary backgrounds, who will form a social cohort through a common classroom experience. Usually offered every year.
Ms. Freeze and Mr. Sheppard

NEJS 232a Research and Archival Methods in Modern Jewish History
A critical examination of research methodologies in the study of modern and American Jewish history, with special attention to primary sources and new historical approaches. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Sarna

NEJS 235b Philosophy of Jewish Education
What should Jewish education be? What are its legitimate goals? What are the competing visions of an educated Jew, and how do these influence educational practice? How is Jewish education similar to and different from other kinds of religious education? Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Levisohn

NEJS 236b Graduate Seminar in Russian-Jewish History to 1917
A discussion of Jewish life in the Polish lands, and the Jews under tsarist rule and Imperial rule, the confrontation of traditional Jewish community with modernity, the haskalah movement, the Jewish family, popular culture, anti-Jewish violence, the rise of new political and cultural movements, and emigration. Usually offered every third year.
Ms. Freeze

NEJS 256a Secularization and Its Discontents
Addresses the meaning and origins of the process of secularization by looking at a number of modern thinkers and writers who have tried to explain what it means to live in a modern world independent of a transcendent God. The construction and deconstruction of secular politics, culture and society will also be a central focus of the course. Can secularization account for new foundations of politics and culture or must it always be to a certain degree inexplicable without a reference to religious phenomena? Usually taught every third year.
Mr. Sheppard

NEJS 259a Renaissance, Revolution, Redemption: Readings in Early Zionist Thought
Explores the writings of a fascinating group of figures - including Bialik, Brenner, Gordon, Kook Rachel - poised on the cusp of traditional Jewish society and the nascent Zionist revolution. They explored the dilemmas of Jewish identity and modern politics and philosophy with great literary power and intellectual intensity. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Mirsky

NEJS 263b Colloquium in American Jewish History
Examines major themes in the historiography of American Jewry. Readings span a broad range of themes, chronological eras, and historical approaches, including Colonial America, waves of immigration, developments in the diverse wings of Judaism, changes in Jewish educational strategies, and the impact of the Holocaust and Holocaust studies on American Judaism. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Sarna

NEJS 285b Conflict and Controversies in Israeli History
From early scenarios to contemporary debates, Zionist society has experienced solidarity and discord. Explores tensions caused by ethnic diversity, religious/secular friction, Arab/Jewish rivalry, and the dilemma of defining a state that is at once Jewish and democratic. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Troen

NEJS 295a Readings for MA Projects
Staff

NEJS 296a Independent Study
Specific sections for individual faculty members as requested.
Staff

NEJS 297a Internship
Staff

NEJS 298a Master's Project
Specific sections for individual faculty members as requested.
Staff

NEJS 299a Master's Thesis
Specific sections for individual faculty members as requested.
Staff

NEJS 299b Master's Thesis
Specific sections for individual faculty members as requested.
Staff

NEJS 316a Readings in Arabic Language and Literature
Staff

NEJS 317a Readings in Assyriology
Mr. Abusch

NEJS 318a Readings in Sumerian
Mr. Abusch

NEJS 321a Readings in Religion and Zionism
Mr. Mirsky

NEJS 322a Readings in Modern Intellectual History
Mr. Sheppard

NEJS 325a Readings in Israeli History
Mr. Troen

NEJS 325b Readings on Muslim Reformist Thought
Mr. Lumbard

NEJS 326a Biblical Literature
Mr. Brettler

NEJS 327a Readings in Contemporary Biblical Scholarship
Mr. Brettler

NEJS 328a Readings in Ancient Near Eastern Languages
Mr. Abusch and Mr. Wright

NEJS 329a Readings in Ancient Near Eastern Religions and Cultures
Mr. Abusch

NEJS 330a Readings in Israeli History
Ms. Freeze

NEJS 331a Readings in Yiddish Literature
Ms. Kellman

NEJS 332a Readings in American Jewish History
Mr. Sarna

NEJS 334a Readings: Israeli Archival Research Methods and Materials
Mr. Friling

NEJS 335a Readings in East European Jewish History
Mr. Polonsky

NEJS 336b Readings in American-Jewish Cultural Studies
Mr. Whitfield

NEJS 337a Readings in Talmudic and Midrashic Literature
Mr. Kimelman

NEJS 338b Readings in Jewish Culture
Ms. Smith

NEJS 339a Readings in Biblical Texts
Mr. Singer

NEJS 340b Readings in Modern Middle East History
A critical examination of key works in modern Arabic culture. Documents will be read in English translations.
Mr. Makiya

NEJS 341a Readings in Holocaust History
Mr. Polonsky

NEJS 342a Readings in the Dead Sea Scrolls
Mr. Brettler

NEJS 343a Readings in Bible and the Ancient Near East
Mr. Wright

NEJS 344a Readings in The Bible and Teaching the Bible
Mr. Brettler

NEJS 345a Readings in Bible and Ancient Near East Studies
Mr. Brettler and Mr. Wright

NEJS 347a Readings in History and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East
Mr. Wright

NEJS 348b Readings in Jewish Thought
Mr. Sheppard

NEJS 349a Readings in the Sephardi Experience in the New World
Mr. Sarna

NEJS 350a Readings in Modern Middle Eastern Historiography
Staff

NEJS 351a Readings in Visual Culture and Religion
Ms. Smith

NEJS 352a Readings in the History of American Jewish Education
Mr. Sarna

NEJS 353b Readings on Space, Place, and Gender
Ms. Freeze

NEJS 354a Readings in Jewish History and Memory: Israeli and European Collective Memory
Mr. Sheppard or Ms. Freeze

NEJS 355a Readings in Jewish Family
Ms. Freeze

NEJS 356a Readings in American Jewish Museum Studies
Mr. Sarna or Ms. Smith

NEJS 360b Readings in Contemporary Jewish Literature and Life
Ms. Fishman

NEJS 361a Readings in Jewish Sociology
Ms. Fishman

NEJS 362a Readings in Polish History 1764-1914
Mr. Polonsky

NEJS 362b Readings in Polish-Jewish Relations
Mr. Polonsky

NEJS 363a Readings in the History of Eastern Europe 1750-1947
Mr. Polonsky

NEJS 363b Readings in the History of East-Central Europe
Mr. Polonsky

NEJS 366a Doctoral and Postdoctoral Seminar on Early Judaism and Christianity
Ms. Brooten and Mr. Kimelman

NEJS 367a Readings in Modern Hebrew Literature
Ms. Szobel

NEJS 368b American-Jewish Women's Literature
Ms. Antler

NEJS 369a Readings in New Testament
Ms. Brooten

NEJS 370a Readings on Islamic Family, Gender and Law
Ms. Freeze

NEJS 370b Readings in Language and Art
Ms. Ringvald

NEJS 372b Readings in American Religious History
Mr. Sarna

NEJS 373a Readings in Russian Jewish History
Ms. Freeze

NEJS 374a Readings in Hebrew Curriculum Design
Ms. Ringvald

NEJS 375a Readings in Jewish Polity Studies
Mr. Sasson

NEJS 376a Readings in Jewish Culture
Ms. Fishman

NEJS 377a Readings in Jewish Identity
Ms. Freeze

NEJS 378a Readings in the History of Judaism
Mr. Kimelman

NEJS 379a Hebrew Language and Culture
Staff

NEJS 379b Readings in Al-Ghazali
Mr. Lumbard

NEJS 380a Readings in German-Jewish History
Mr. Sheppard

NEJS 381a Readings in Early Modern Jewish History
Ms. Freeze

NEJS 382a Readings in Jewish Education
Ms. Feiman-Nemser and Mr. Levisohn

NEJS 383a Readings in Medieval Islam
Mr. Lumbard

NEJS 384a Readings in Medieval Jewish Philosophy
Mr. Decter

NEJS 385a Readings in Liturgy
Mr. Kimelman

NEJS 386a Readings in Research in Jewish Education
Ms. Feiman-Nemser and Mr. Levisohn

NEJS 387a Readings in Hittite
Mr. Wright

NEJS 388a Readings in Black-Jewish Relations
Mr. Sarna

NEJS 389a Readings in Bible Interpretation
Mr. Brettler

NEJS 390a Readings in Medieval Judaism
Mr. Decter

NEJS 391a Readings in Sephardic Studies
Mr. Decter

NEJS 392a Readings in Arab Enlightenment
Ms. Sohrabi

NEJS 393a Readings in American Jewish Literature
Staff

NEJS 396a Jewish Experience and Thought
Mr. Sheppard

NEJS 396b Readings in Israel Studies
Mr. Troen

NEJS 397a Readings in Material Culture Studies
Ms. Smith

NEJS 397b Advanced Readings in the Theories and Methods of Religious Studies
Mr. Brettler

NEJS 398a History of Zionist Thought
Mr. Sheppard

NEJS 398b Readings: Abraham Joshua Heschel
Mr. Kaplan

NEJS 399a Directed Readings: Classical Sufi Texts
Mr. Lumbard

NEJS 399b Readings in Jewish Pseudepigrapha
Ms. Brooten

NEJS 401d Dissertation Colloquium
Independent research for the PhD. Specific sections for individual faculty members as requested.
Staff

Hebrew and Yiddish Courses

HBRW 10a Beginning Hebrew
Four class hours and one additional lab hour per week.
For students with no previous knowledge and those with a minimal background. Intensive training in the basics of Hebrew grammar, listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. Several sections will be offered. Usually offered every semester.
Staff

HBRW 19a Beginning Hebrew: Honors
Prerequisite: Hebrew placement exam. Only one 10-level Hebrew course may be taken for credit.
A beginner course for those students with some exposure to Hebrew. Builds upon the initial exposure, continuing to teach the basics of grammar, vocabulary, speaking, and writing. Usually offered every year.
Staff

HBRW 20b Intermediate Hebrew
Prerequisite: HBRW 10a or the equivalent as determined by placement examination. Only one 20-level Hebrew course may be taken for credit. Four class hours and one lab hour per week.
Continuation of HBRW 10a, employing the same methods. Intensive training in Hebrew grammar, listening, comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. Several sections offered every semester.
Staff

HBRW 29b Intermediate Hebrew I: Honors
Prerequisite: HBRW 10a or the equivalent as determined by placement examination. Only one 20-level Hebrew course may be taken for credit. Four class hours and one lab hour per week.
This course is designed for honor students who wish to excel in the language. Students are admitted upon recommendation of the director of the Hebrew language program. Usually offered every year in the spring.
Staff

HBRW 34a Intermediate Hebrew II: Aspects of Israeli Culture
[ fl ]
Prerequisite: Any 20-level Hebrew course or the equivalent as determined by placement examination. Two 30-level Hebrew courses may be taken for credit. Four class hours and one lab hour per week.
A continuation of HBRW 20b. An intermediate- to mid-level course that helps students strengthen their skills at this level. Contemporary cultural aspects will be stressed and a variety of materials will be used. Usually offered every semester.
Staff

HBRW 35a Conversation and Writing Skills
[ fl ]
Prerequisite: HBRW 20b or the equivalent as determined by placement examination. This course is recommended for students who have not previously studied Hebrew at Brandeis and have been placed at this level. Four class hours and one lab hour per week.
An intermediate-level course designed to improve the linguistic and writing skills of students who have an extensive background in the language but lack the academic skills to fulfill the language requirements or to pursue a higher level of Hebrew or Judaic studies. Usually offered every year in the fall.
Staff

HBRW 41a Advanced Intermediate Hebrew: Intensive Conversation
[ fl hum ]
Prerequisite: Any 30-level Hebrew course or the equivalent. Students may take this course and HBRW 44b for credit. Four class hours per week.
For students who have acquired an intermediate knowledge of Hebrew and who wish to develop a greater fluency in conversation. This course does not satisfy the language requirement for the NEJS major or the major in Hebrew. Usually offered every year in the fall.
Staff

HBRW 44b Advanced Intermediate Hebrew: Israeli Culture and Media
[ fl hum ]
Prerequisite: Any 30-level Hebrew course or the equivalent. Students may not take this course and HBRW 49b for credit. Four class hours per week.
Reinforces the acquired skills of speaking, listening comprehension, reading, and writing at the intermediate to mid/high level. Contemporary cultural aspects are stressed; conversational Hebrew and reading of selections from modern literature, political essays, and newspaper articles. Required for NEJS majors and Hebrew majors and recommended for others who would like to continue studying Hebrew beyond the foreign language requirement. It is a prerequisite for many upper-level Hebrew courses. Usually offered every semester.
Staff

HBRW 97a Senior Essay
Usually offered every semester.
Staff

HBRW 97b Senior Essay
Usually offered every semester.
Staff

HBRW 98a Independent Study
Usually offered every year in the fall.
Staff

HBRW 98b Independent Study
Signature of the instructor required.
Usually offered every year in the spring.
Staff

HBRW 99a Senior Thesis
Signature of the director required to enroll.
Usually offered every year.
Staff

HBRW 99b Senior Thesis
Signature of the director required to enroll.
Usually offered every year.
Staff

HBRW 102a Hebrew Reading Proficiency
Prerequisite: Intermediate knowledge of Hebrew reading. Primarily intended for graduate students. Not for credit.
An intermediate- to mid-level course for graduate students interested in strengthening their reading skills. Emphasizes recognition of grammatical structures in the written language and the acquisition of recognition vocabulary. Intended to help students in their research or in preparation for the Hebrew language exam. Usually offered every year.
Staff

HBRW 102b Advanced Reading Proficiency and Comprehension
Prerequisite: HBRW 102a or high-intermediate reading knowledge of Hebrew. Not for credit.
A continuation of HBRW 102a. Different materials and texts are studied. This class is conducted in English. Usually offered every year.
Staff

HBRW 121b Let's converse in Hebrew, II
[ fl hum ]
Prerequisite: Any 40-level Hebrew course or the equivalent. Four class hours per week.
An intermediate- to mid/high-level conversation course for students who wish to improve their speaking skills before entering more advanced-level courses. Role playing, vocabulary building, and guided speaking activities develop conversational skills for various situations. Reading and discussion of contemporary texts assist in vocabulary building. Usually offered every year.
Ms. Azoulay

HBRW 123a Creative Reading and Writing in Hebrew I
[ fl hum wi ]
Prerequisite: Any 40-level Hebrew course or the equivalent, as determined by the director of the Hebrew language program. Four class hours per week.
An intermediate- to mid/high-level course, which focuses on modern Hebrew prose and poetry stressing major trends. Students are expected to acquire better fluency in reading, writing, and conversation. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Ofengenden

HBRW 123b Creative Reading and Writing in Hebrew II
[ fl hum wi ]
Prerequisite: Any 40-level Hebrew course or its equivalent, as determined by the director of the Hebrew language program. Four class hours per week.
An intermediate- to mid/high-level course that focuses on the representation of the Holocaust and the generational relationships in modern Hebrew prose and poetry. Students are expected to acquire better fluency in reading, writing, and conversation. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Ofengenden

HBRW 141a Advanced Hebrew Conversation
[ fl hum ]
Prerequisite: Four semesters of Hebrew or permission of the instructor. Four class hours and one additional hour of lab work or speaking practice per week are required.
For advanced students who want to work on accuracy, fluency, and vocabulary building. The course prepares students to become advanced speakers of Hebrew. Reading of contemporary texts and newspaper articles and listening to Israeli videos will serve as a basis for building higher-level speaking proficiency. One additional weekly hour of lab work or speaking practice is required. Usually offered every year.
Ms. Azoulay

HBRW 144a Hebrew through Plays and Drama
[ ca fl hum wi ]
Prerequisite: Four semesters of Hebrew or permission of the instructor. Four class hours and two additional weekly hours of lab work are required.
Helps improve Hebrew language skills at the intermediate-high/advanced-level by focusing on various creative aspects such as improvisations, drama, performance, and other acting techniques such as movement, imagination, and other basic skills necessary to act out scenes from various plays in the Hebrew language. Writing assignments and self-critique enhance the students' skills in language acquisition. The course culminates in the writing of one-act plays in Hebrew along with a theatrical performance and production. Usually offered every year in the fall.
Ms. Azoulay

HBRW 146a The Voices of Jerusalem
[ fl hum wi ]
Prerequisite: Four semesters of Hebrew or permission of the instructor. Four class hours per week.
Aims to develop students' language proficiency through analysis of selected materials that depict the unique tradition, literature and poetry, history, politics, art, and other features related to Jerusalem. Usually offered every second year in the fall.
Ms. Hascal

HBRW 161b What's Up?: Hebrew through Israeli News Media
[ fl hum wi ]
Prerequisite: Five semesters of Hebrew or permission of the instructor. Four class hours per week.
For advanced students who wish to enhance proficiency and accuracy in writing and speaking. Israeli newspapers, films, clips from Israeli TV series and shows, and on-line resources will be used to promote language and cultural competency. Usually offered every spring.
Ms. Porath

HBRW 164b Israeli Theater
[ ca fl hum wi ]
Prerequisite: Five semesters of Hebrew or permission of the instructor. Four class hours and two lab hours per week.
An advanced course that enhances advanced language skills through reading and analysis of plays. The student's creativity is developed through participation in acting and creative writing lab. In reading plays, students can also participate in Hebrew acting lab. Usually offered every second year in the fall.
Ms. Azoulay

HBRW 166b Portrait of the Israeli Woman
[ fl hum wi ]
Prerequisite: Five semesters of Hebrew or permission of the instructor. Four class hours per week.
An advanced culture course that enhances advanced language skills through examination of the Israeli woman's role, image, and unique voice reflected in Israeli literature, history, tradition, and art. Usually offered every second year in the fall.
Ms. Hascal

HBRW 167b Back to the Roots: The Revival of Modern Hebrew
[ fl hum ]
Prerequisite: Five semesters of Hebrew or permission of the instructor. Four class hours per week.
An advanced course that surveys the origins of the Hebrew language and its development throughout the centuries, focusing on its major stages (biblical, rabbinic, medieval, and modern). Explores the unique phenomenon of its revival as a spoken language and its adaptation to the modern world. Usually offered every fall.
Ms. Porath

HBRW 168a Hebrew Language Teaching I
[ fl hum ]
Prerequisite: Five semesters of Hebrew or permission of the instructor. Three class hours per week.
An advanced-level methodology course that focuses on the theories and methodologies for teaching Hebrew. Course taught in Hebrew and in English. Designed primarily for students at the advanced level who are interested in eventually being able to teach Hebrew. Usually offered every fall.
Ms. Ringvald

HBRW 168b Hebrew Language Teaching II
[ fl hum ]
Prerequisite: Five semesters of Hebrew or permission of the instructor. Three class hours per week.
An advanced seminar that focuses on students' understanding of second languages, particularly the students of Hebrew, as well as understanding the foundations of curriculum development. The course is taught in Hebrew and in English and is a continuation of HBRW 168a. Students participate in teaching practicum through internship and learn how to apply their knowledge. Usually offered every spring.
Ms. Ringvald

HBRW 170a Take I: Hebrew through Israeli Cinema
[ fl hum wi ]
Prerequisite: Five semesters of Hebrew or permission of the instructor. Four class hours per week.
An advanced culture course that focuses on the various aspects of Israeli society as they are portrayed in Israeli films and television. In addition to viewing films, the students will be asked to read Hebrew background materials, to participate in class discussions, and to write in Hebrew about the films. Usually offered every spring.
Mr. Ofengenden

YDSH 10a Beginning Yiddish
Meets for four class hours per week.
The first of a four-semester sequence, this course introduces basic Yiddish grammar. Students also develop reading, writing, and conversational skills. Yiddish songs, poetry, and folklore are incorporated throughout. Usually offered every year.
Ms. Kellman

YDSH 20b Continuing Yiddish
Prerequisite: YDSH 10a or permission of the instructor. Meets for four class hours per week.
Continues the study of grammar begun in YDSH 10a. Writing and speaking skills receive more emphasis than in the previous course, and students begin to build vocabulary and reading skills that will enable them to comprehend more complex texts. The history and culture of Eastern European Jewry are studied through Yiddish songs, films, and literature. Usually offered every year.
Ms. Kellman

YDSH 30a Intermediate Yiddish
[ fl wi ]
Prerequisite: YDSH 20b or permission of the instructor. Meets for four class hours per week.
Third in a four-semester sequence. Students continue to develop reading skills as they sample texts from Yiddish prose fiction, folklore, and memoir literature. Grammatical instruction is more contextualized than in the previous courses. Speaking and writing skills are strongly emphasized. Usually offered every year.
Ms. Kellman

YDSH 40b Advanced Intermediate Yiddish
[ fl hum ]
Prerequisite: YDSH 30a or permission of the instructor. Meets for four class hours per week.
The fourth in a four-semester sequence, this course is a continuation of YDSH 30a. Students discuss assigned texts in Yiddish. Written assignments emphasize the development of fluency and grammatical accuracy. Skills for using Yiddish in academic research are taught. Usually offered every year.
Ms. Kellman

YDSH 98b Independent Study
Usually offered every year.
Staff

Cross-Listed for the Judiac Studies Track

ANTH 118b Peoples and Societies of Israel and the Middle East
[ ss ]
Examines the peoples and societies of the Middle East from an anthropological perspective. Explores problems of cross-cultural examination, the notion of the Middle East as an area of study, and the role of anthropology in the formation of the idea of the “Middle East.” To this end, the course is divided into sections devoted to understanding and problematizing key concepts and themes central to our understanding of the region, including tribe and state, family and kinship, gender and sexuality, honor and shame, tradition and modernity, and religion and secularism. Course materials will include critical ethnographies based on field work in the region as well as locally produced materials such as literature, music, film and other visual arts. Usually offered every fourth year.
Staff

BISC 2b Genes and the Human Story
[ sn ]
Does not meet the requirements for the major in Biology.
Correlates findings from a wide variety of genetic sources with anthropological, cultural, historical, and religious information about human origins, human reproduction, infectious diseases, and lineages of human populations. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Wangh

CLAS 192b Slavery in the Roman World (1st-4th C. CE)
[ hum ]
Analyzes the world's first society with massive enslavement. Topics include sources of slavery, slavery's economic role, Roman, Jewish, and Christian legal regulation, gender difference and sexuality, religious teachings, daily life, punishment, incentives, and resistance, and slavery's effects on the freeborn. Usually offered every third year.
Ms. Brooten

FA 68a Israeli Art and Visual Culture: Forging Identities Between East and West
[ ca ]
May not be taken for credit by students who took FA 153a in prior years.
An examination of the visual arts created in Israel since the beginning of the twentieth century. Combines a chronological overview of major trends with an in-depth examination of select case studies of individual artists and specific themes.
Ms. Ankori

FA 76a Palestinian and Israeli Art, Film and Visual Culture: Intersecting Visions
[ ca ]
Israelis and Palestinians have been creating vibrant and bold works of art that both reflect and transcend the region's conflict-ridden history. This course offers a critical comparative study of Israeli and Palestinian art, exploring contentious expressions of pain and trauma as well as shared visions of hope and peace. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Ankori

FYS 28b The Jewish Family: Past and Present
[ hum ]
Examines the transformation of the Jewish family in four different settings (Europe, America, North Africa, and the Middle East) from medieval to modern times, focusing primarily on the internal dynamics of family life and interaction with majority cultures.
Ms. Freeze (Near Eastern and Judaic Studies)

IMES 104a Islam: Civilization and Institutions
[ hum nw ]
Provides a disciplined study of Islamic civilization from its origins to the modern period. Approaches the study from a humanities perspective. Topics covered will include the Qur'an, tradition, law, theology, politics, Islam and other religions, modern developments, and women in Islam. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Lumbard

IMES 105a War and Revolution in the Middle East
[ hum nw wi ]
Considers the impact of war and revolution in the shaping of the modern Middle East starting with the Arab-Israeli war of 1967. Focuses on the violent turning points that have changed the lives of millions of people.
Mr. Makiya

ITAL 134b Nella cultura ebraica italiana: cinema e letteratura
[ fl hum wi ]
Prerequisite: ITAL 105a or equivalent. Conducted in Italian. Materials fee: $20.
Analyzes Italian Jewish representations in Italian culture from the founding of the ghetto in Venice in 1516 to modern times. Works of Italian Jewish writers and historians are examined as well as Italian movies that address Jewish themes within the mainstream of Italian culture. This course has an interdisciplinary approach while focusing on advanced Italian language skills. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Servino

PHIL 177b Simone Weil
[ hum ]
Studies the French philosopher Simone Weil, revolutionary and mystic. Is divine perfection reconcilable with human suffering? Weil shook the foundations of Christianity and Judaism attempting to answer this question and this course will rejoin her quest. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Yourgrau

REL 121a Mysticism and the Moral Life
[ hum wi ]
Studies the lives and writings of mystics and activists from Jewish, Sufi, Roman Catholic, and African American protestant traditions, who connect prayer, the experience of God, and ethical commitment. Special focus on Heschel, Merton, Thurman, Teresa of Avila, Sayyed Hossein Nasr. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Kaplan

WMGS 140a Diversity of Muslim Women's Experience
[ nw ss ]
A broad introduction to the multidimensional nature of women's experiences in the Muslim world. As both a cultural and religious element in this vast region, understanding Islam in relation to lives of women has become increasingly imperative. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Shavarini

Cross-Listed for the Bible and Ancient Near Eastern Studies Track

ANTH 105a Myth and Ritual
[ nw ss ]
Studies myth and ritual as two interlocking modes of cultural symbolism. Evaluates theoretical approaches to myth by looking at creation and political myths. Examines performative, processual, and spatial models of ritual analysis through study of initiation, sacrifice, and funerals. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Schattschneider

ANTH 123a Archaeology in Theory and Practice
[ ss ]
Focuses on the fundamental problem of archaeology: how can we understand past cultures on the basis of broken pottery, ruined buildings, scattered stone tools, and the other material remains left to us? Drawing on the work of scholars conducting research around the world, this seminar offers an exploration of the great variety of theoretical perspectives on approaching the human past. Readings and discussions will engage students with the major theoretical and methodological issues of the field in the 20th and 21st centuries. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Golden, Mr. Parno or Mr. Urcid

ANTH 136a Archaeology of Power: Authority, Prestige, and Inequality in the Past
[ nw ss ]
Anthropological and archaeological research and theory provide a unique, long-term perspective on the development of inequality and rise of hierarchical societies, including the earliest ancient states such as the Moche, Maya, China, Sumerians, Egyptians, and others through 5000 years of human history. A comparative, multidisciplinary seminar examining the dynamics of authority, prestige, and power in the past, and the implications for understanding the present . Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Golden

ANTH 153a Writing Systems and Scribal Traditions
[ nw ss ]
Explores the ways in which writing has been conceptualized in social anthropology, linguistics and archaeology. A comparative study of various forms of visual communication, both non-glottic and glottic systems, is undertaken to better understand the nature of pristine and contemporary phonetic scripts around the world and to consider alternative models to explain their origin, prestige, and obsolescence. The course pays particular attention to the social functions of early writing systems, the linkage of literacy and political power, and the production of historical memory. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Urcid

ANTH 186b Linguistic Anthropology
[ ss ]
Advanced topics in linguistic anthropology, including the study of linguistic meaning in context, pragmatics, the construction of social relationships through language, language and authority, language and religion, and linguistic ideologies. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. McIntosh or Mr. Parmentier

CLAS 100a Survey of Greek History: Bronze Age to 323 BCE
[ hum ]
Surveys the political and social development of the Greek city-states from Bronze Age origins to the death of Alexander. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Walker

CLAS 167b Classical Myths Told and Retold
[ hum wi ]
Surveys several major literary works of the ancient Greeks and Romans in order to study their mythological content, variant myths, and the influence of mythology on later literature and modern cinema. Usually offered every third year.
Ms. Koloski-Ostrow

CLAS 170a Classical Mythology
[ hum ]
An introduction to Greek and Roman mythology. Considers ancient song cultures, and the relationship between myth, drama, and religion. Also explores visual representations of myth. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Muellner

CLAS 190b Ancient Mysteries, Cults, and Myths
[ hum ]
An investigation of the phenomenon of the ancient mystery cults as preserved in the surviving art and literature of antiquity. Usually offered every third year.
Ms. Johnston

GRK 20b Continuing Ancient Greek
Prerequisite: A grade of C- or higher in GRK 10a. Three class hours per week.
Fundamentals of Greek grammar through reading. Students must earn a C- or higher in GRK 20b in order to enroll in a 30-level Greek course. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Muellner

LING 100a Introduction to Linguistics
[ ss ]
Open to all students.
A general introduction to linguistic theory and the principles of linguistic analysis. Students will construct detailed analyses of data from English and other languages in the areas of phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics, and examine their implications for a theory of language as it is encoded in the human mind. Usually offered every year.
Ms. Goldberg and Ms. Malamud

LING 110a Phonological Theory
[ ss ]
Prerequisite: LING 100a.
An introduction to generative phonology, the theory of natural language sound systems. Includes discussion of articulatory phonetics, distinctive feature theory, the concept of a "natural class," morphology and the nature of morphophonemics, and universal properties of the rules that relate morphophonemic and phonetic representations. Usually offered every year.
Staff

LING 115a Morphology
[ ss ]
Prerequisite: LING 100a or permission of the instructor.
An exploration of word structure and its analysis. Topics include the lexicon and lexical entries, word-headedness, argument structure and other issues in morphosyntax, derivational and inflectional morphology, compounds, morphophonology, and non-Indo-European processes like infixing, reduplication, and Semitic root-and-pattern morphology. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Goldberg

LING 120b Syntactic Theory
[ ss ]
Prerequisite: LING 100a is recommended but not required. Four class hours per week.
An introduction to the process of syntactic analysis, to generative syntactic theory, and to many major syntactic phenomena of English and other languages, including the clausal architecture, the lexicon, and various types of syntactic movement. Usually offered every year.
Ms. Goldberg

LING 125b Linguistic Typology
[ ss ]
Prerequisite: LING 100a or permission of the instructor.
Focuses on linguistic typology, in which the languages of the world are classified in terms of their common grammatical features rather than by genetic relationships. Includes study of language universals: traits and implicational relationships which hold in (nearly) every language. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Goldberg

Cross-Listed for the Hebrew Language Track

FA 68a Israeli Art and Visual Culture: Forging Identities Between East and West
[ ca ]
May not be taken for credit by students who took FA 153a in prior years.
An examination of the visual arts created in Israel since the beginning of the twentieth century. Combines a chronological overview of major trends with an in-depth examination of select case studies of individual artists and specific themes.
Ms. Ankori

FA 76a Palestinian and Israeli Art, Film and Visual Culture: Intersecting Visions
[ ca ]
Israelis and Palestinians have been creating vibrant and bold works of art that both reflect and transcend the region's conflict-ridden history. This course offers a critical comparative study of Israeli and Palestinian art, exploring contentious expressions of pain and trauma as well as shared visions of hope and peace. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Ankori