Publications by Judge Mumba include:


“The Ombudsman: the need for protection and control”, in Ombudsman — India and the World Community. Indian Institute of Public Administration, pp. 33-40.

“Development and Essential Features of the Ombudsman Institution”, in The Ombudsman in Southern Africa, pp. 17-26.

“The Commission for Investigations in Zambia”, in The Ombudsman in Southern Africa, pp. 233- 239.


"Ensuring a Fair Trial Whilst Protecting Victims and Witnesses -- Balancing of Interests?" Essays on ICTY Procedure and Evidence in Honour of Gabrielle Kirk McDonald. Brill Nijhoff, pp. 359 - 371.


"Topics Within the Sphere of Sentencing in International Criminal Law". Man's Inhumanity to Man: Essays on International Law in Honour of Antonio Cassese. Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 567 - 594.

Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba

Trial Judge of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, 1997-2003; Appeals Judge of the ICTY and International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 2003-05; currently Judge of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia

mumbaAn interview with Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba, conducted by Susana SáCouto on 25 May 2016 in The Hague.

Access the full transcript here.

Go to the Brandeis Institutional Repository to conduct a keyword search across the entire Ad Hoc Tribunals Oral History collection.

Please use the following citation format: Oral History Interview with Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba (2017), Ad Hoc Tribunals Oral History Project, pages XX, International Center for Ethics, Justice and Public Life, Robert D. Farber University Archives & Special Collections Department, Brandeis University.

Interview content

In her interview, Judge Mumba reminisces about her time as a student and young lawyer before being elected as the first female judge at the Zambian High Court in 1980; her role in proposing rape as a war crime and as a crime against humanity in the statute of the ICTR in 1993; and tackling issues pertaining to rape as a formal crime in the first case she presided, the Furundžija case. She discusses the higher standards for international criminal responsibility under international law; the issues faced by the Witness Unit in convincing women to testify who were frightened by the stigma of rape; the determination that women who were labeled “girlfriends” by the accused were not capable of voluntarily acting due to the situation of duress; the exemplified principles of Command Responsibility as seen in the Kubura and Hadžihasanović cases; and the legacy of the Tribunals in demonstrating that political power for elected officials is not absolute and will not go unpunished if abused.

Biographical information

Florence Ndepele Mwachande Mumba was born 1948 in Zambia. She received her Bachelor of Laws from the University of Zambia in 1972. She worked as Legal Counsel in Zambia from 1973 to 1980. In October 1980, she was the first woman to be appointed High Court Judge in Zambia. She acted as a Representative of Zambia at the Conference on Women in 1985 and the African Regional Conference on Women in 1994. As a member of the UN Commission on the Status of Women, she participated in drafting a resolution to the General Assembly, in early 1992, to have rape included as a war crime in the jurisdiction of war crimes tribunals. She served on the International Ombudsman Institute Board from 1992 to 1996, acting as Vice-President during the final two years of her tenure. In 1997, she was appointed to the Supreme Court in Zambia. She served as Commissioner on the International Commission of Jurists, 1994 to 2003. As Commissioner, she participated in drafting the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights on the establishment of the African Court of Justice in 1995. As a Commonwealth Secretariat expert, she participated in drafting  a Constitution  amendment for the establishment of a national Ombudsman for The Gambia, 1993. In 1997, She was elected Judge of the ICTY. She served as Vice President of The ICTY from 1999 to 2001. From 2003 to 2005, she served on the ICTY/ICTR Appeals Chamber.  She was appointed to the African Union High Panel on Darfur in 2009. In the same year, she was appointed Reserve Judge of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. She now serves on the Supreme Court Chamber as a full time judge.