Ten Years After the Rwandan Genocide, Northwestern University, comments by Stephen Rapp on ICTR prosecutions, available through C-Span (see 1:32:15 to 1:46:28).  

Interview with Stephen Rapp by the International Bar Association during his tenure as United States Ambassador-at-Large for Global Criminal Justice.

Podcast featuring Stephen Rapp for United Nations series "Global Dispatches," 2015.

Stephen Rapp's video interview for the Voices of the Tribunal project, about his experiences at the ICTR.

Interview with Stephen Rapp conducted for the Africa Group on Justice and Accountability, Arusha, April 2016. 

Keynote address by Stephen Rapp upon receiving the Champion of Justice award at the Center for Justice and Accountability in San Francisco, 12 May 2016.

Stephen Rapp

Senior Trial Attorney and Head of Prosecution at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 2001-2007 

rappAn interview with Stephen Rapp, conducted on 16 May 2016 in Washington, D.C. by Linda Carter and Susana SáCouto.

Access the full transcript here.

Go to the Brandeis Institutional Repository to conduct a keyword search across the entire Ad Hoc Tribunals Oral History collection.

Please use the following citation format: Oral History Interview with Stephen Rapp (2017), Ad Hoc Tribunals Oral History Project, pages XX, International Center for Ethics, Justice and Public Life, Robert D. Farber University Archives & Special Collections Department, Brandeis University.

Interview content

In his interview, Mr. Rapp reminisces about his interest in becoming involved with international prosecutions in the aftermath of ethnic cleansing in Kosovo; applying to a vacant position at the ICTR while working as a federal prosecutor in rural Iowa; his process of recruitment as Senior Trial Attorney at the ICTR; presenting the Bikindi indictment to Carla Del Ponte in The Hague before the arrival of Slobodan Milošević at the ICTY; the impact of his prior experience as an American trained-lawyer at the ICTR; and his experience as a prosecutor in Iowa bringing the first violence against women case. He discusses his selection as the lead prosecutor in the Prosecutor v. Barayagwiza, Nahimana, and Ngeze ("Media") trial; the approach of the prosecutorial team against the three accused of inciting genocide; building cases against “masterminds” of the Rwandan Genocide; interpreting the RTLM broadcasts as an incitement to genocide; developing a new approach to plea-bargaining; the impact of Nuremberg on the development of international criminal law; and the future of international criminal justice.

Biographical information

Stephen Rapp was born 26 January 1949. He obtained his B.A. from Harvard University and his J.D. from Drake Law School. He served as U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Iowa from 1993 to 2001; Senior Trial Attorney at the ICTR from 2001 to 2005; Chief of Prosecutions at the ICTR from 2005 to 2007; Chief Prosecutor of the Special Court for Sierra Leone from 2007 to 2009; and U.S. Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes from 2009 to 2015.