1997-98 University Bulletin Entry for:

The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

S = History and Organization

The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences was formally established in 1953 when the University's Board of Trustees authorized graduate study in the departments of chemistry, music, psychology, and Near Eastern and Judaic Studies. The general direction of the Graduate School is vested in a Graduate Council of the Faculty comprised of the President and the provost, ex officio; the dean of arts and sciences; and one representative, usually the chair, of each of the several University departments and programs offering graduate instruction. The members of the Graduate Council are appointed by the President on the recommendations of the dean of arts and sciences. The functions of the Graduate Council, exercised in consonance with University policy, are to determine requirements for admission; provide programs of study and examination; establish and maintain requirements for graduate degrees; make recommendations for degrees; make recommendations for new areas of graduate study; lay down such regulations as may be considered necessary or expedient for governing the Graduate School; and exercise a general supervision over its affairs. The dean of arts and sciences is the chair of the Graduate Council and the chief executive officer of the Graduate School.

S = Objectives

The underlying ideal of the Graduate School is to assemble a community of scholars, scientists, and artists, in whose company the student-scholar can pursue study and research as an apprentice. This objective is to be attained by individualizing programs of study, restricting the number of students accepted, maintaining continual contact between students and faculty, and fostering the intellectual potential of each student. The graduate programs are designed to educate broadly as well as train professionally. Degrees are granted on the evidence of intellectual growth and development, rather than solely on the basis of formal course credits. Fulfillment of the minimum requirements cannot, therefore, be regarded as the sole requisite for degrees.

S = Areas of Graduate Study

During the academic year 1997-98, graduate programs will be offered in the following areas:

1. American History

2. Anthropology

3. Anthropology and Women's Studies

4. Biochemistry

5. Bioorganic Chemistry

6. Biophysics and Structural Biology

7. Chemistry

8. Comparative History

9. Computer Science

10. English and American Literature

11. English and American Literature and Women's Studies

12. Genetic Counseling

13. Jewish Communal Service

14. Jewish Communal Service and Management of Human Services (Heller School)

15. Jewish Communal Service and Near Eastern and Judaic Studies

16. Interdisciplinary Program in Literary Studies and Program in Translation

17. Mathematics

18. Molecular and Cell Biology

19. Music

20. Near Eastern and Judaic Studies

21. Near Eastern and Judaic Studies and Women's Studies

22. Neuroscience

23. Physics

24. Politics

25. Psychology

26. Sociology

27. Sociology and Women's Studies

28. Sustainable International Development

29. Theater Arts

The Graduate School also offers post-baccalaureate programs in studio art and premedical studies, as well as a diploma in Jewish studies and an Artist's diploma in music. There are also joint degree programs for Ph.D. students at both the master's and doctoral level.

S = Graduate School

The Graduate School office is located on the second floor of Kutz Hall. All requests for information and application forms should be addressed to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Brandeis University, MS 031, P.O. Box 9110, Waltham, Massachusetts 02254-9110.

M = Admission

As a rule, only well-qualified applicants who have completed at least the normal four-year program leading to the bachelor's degree will be considered for admission to the Graduate School. Graduates of foreign schools and others who have completed the equivalent of a bachelor's degree program may apply, describing the educational program they have completed.

S = Testing

Applicants for admission to the graduate programs in American history, biochemistry, bioorganic chemistry, biophysics and structural biology, chemistry, comparative history, computer science, English and American literature, genetic counseling, Jewish communal service, mathematics, molecular and cell biology, neuroscience, physics, politics, and psychology must submit official results of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). Applicants to the Jewish Communal Service program may submit the official results of either the GMAT or the Miller Analogies Test in lieu of the GRE. All other applicants are urged to take the GRE. Consult specific programs for additional test requirements. In order for the results of the GRE to be considered, the applicant should take the examination no later than January preceding the academic year for which application is made. Information concerning the GRE is available from the Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey 08541-6155.

Applicants whose native language is not English, regardless of the field of graduate study, are required to submit the official score of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). The minimum score for admission to the Graduate School is 600. They are also advised to take the Test of Written English (TWE) and Test of Spoken English (TSE) unless English is their first language. Applications for admission to the test should be made to TOEFL, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey 08541-6155, USA.

S = Application

Specific requirements for each graduate program are to be found under the appropriate headings in this Bulletin and on the information sheet with the application. Each applicant should consult these requirements before filing an application. A student may apply to only one graduate program. An applicant should write to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, stating which program of study he or she wishes to enter. A Guide to Graduate Admissions with appropriate forms will be forwarded to the applicant. The Application for Admission should be completed and returned in duplicate as soon as possible.

Applications for admission for the spring term should be filed by December 1. Students are not usually admitted at midyear, and those who do gain admission are not normally eligible for financial aid.

All applicants must arrange to forward, in duplicate, official transcripts of all undergraduate and graduate work. In addition, they must submit at least two letters of recommendation, preferably from professors with whom they have studied in their proposed area of study. Applicants who have engaged in graduate study elsewhere should request at least one of the recommendations from a professor with whom they have done graduate work.

Many programs also require the submission of samples of work as well as the materials described above. Applicants should consult program requirements in a later section of this Bulletin for enumeration of additional materials to be submitted.

All applications must be accompanied by the application fee of $40 if postmarked by December 1, 1997, and $60 if postmarked after that date. The fee is payable by check or money order to Brandeis University. No application will be processed until this fee is paid. There is a one-time fee waiver for Brandeis students, alumni, and staff.

S = Admission Procedure

All applicants are considered on a competitive basis. The number of students admitted each year in each program is limited so that the Graduate School may operate effectively under its distinctive principles of individualized study and apprenticeship. Consequently, admission may sometimes be denied to qualified persons. Meeting the minimum standards of admission merely qualifies the applicant for a place in the group from which final selections will be made. Selections are based on the applicant's ability to do graduate work of high quality, as shown by: the distinction of his or her previous record, particularly in the proposed area of study; the letters of recommendation submitted in support of the application; and his or her presumed adaptability to the particular graduate programs offered by Brandeis University. In addition, knowledge of foreign languages, relevant practical experience in the field, samples of work, the results of the GRE, and indications of character are considered.

Each application for admission with all supporting records is first examined by the appropriate program committee. The committee recommends to the dean of arts and sciences which applicants should be selected for admission and financial aid. The dean reviews all applications in the light of the program's recommendations.

S = Acceptance

A student who has been accepted for admission to the Graduate School will be notified by a letter specifying the date by which he or she must accept the offer of admission and awards, if any. A matriculation fee of $300 must be filed by each master's degree, certificate, or diploma applicant upon notification of acceptance. This fee reserves a place in the class and is credited toward the first semester tuition bill. If the student fails to enroll or withdraws his or her application, the matriculation fee is not refunded. If a student selected for admission indicates that he or she does not intend to accept the offer or fails to reply by the date specified, the admission offer becomes void and another applicant may be accepted.

Brandeis University subscribes to the "Resolution Regarding Scholars, Fellows, Trainees, and Graduate Assistants" of the Council of Graduate Schools in the United States. The resolution states:

Acceptance of an offer of financial support (such as a graduate scholarship, fellowship, traineeship, or assistantship) for the next academic year by a prospective or enrolled graduate student completes an agreement that both student and graduate school expect to honor. In that context, the conditions affecting such offers and their acceptance must be defined carefully and understood by all parties. Students are under no obligation to respond to offers of financial support prior to April 15; earlier deadlines for acceptance of such offers violate the intent of this Resolution. In those instances in which a student accepts an offer before April 15, and subsequently desires to withdraw that acceptance, the student may submit in writing a resignation of the appointment at any time through April 15. However, an acceptance given or left in force after April 15 commits the student not to accept another offer without first obtaining a written release from the institution to which a commitment has been made. Similarly, an offer by an institution after April 15 is conditional on presentation by the student of the written release from any previously accepted offer. It is further agreed by the institutions and organizations subscribing to the above Resolution that a copy of this Resolution should accompany every scholarship, fellowship, traineeship, and assistantship offer.

Students must provide the Graduate School office with an official final transcript of their undergraduate record and, if required by the graduate program, any graduate work in process at the time of acceptance. In addition, students who are accepted are required to complete and return a medical questionnaire and a health insurance form. Registration is conditional upon receipt by University Health Services of these required forms.

If, after having been admitted, a student cannot attend, he or she should notify the Graduate School as soon as possible. If such a student wishes to be admitted in a subsequent academic year, he or she must request reactivation of the application at the appropriate time, and update it with a new statement of purpose and official transcripts, if applicable. Admission to the Graduate School does not imply that the successful applicant has been accepted as a candidate for a graduate degree. Superior performance at Brandeis University is essential.

Applicants who have been denied admission may reapply in a later year, particularly if they have had further training that would strengthen their applications or if they can submit additional letters of recommendation.

S = Academic Standing

Admission is valid only for one academic year. Graduate programs review students' academic progress annually. Satisfactory academic progress in a program also involves maintaining the professional standards expected in a particular discipline or program. Academic insufficiency or failure to make suitable progress toward the degree may require withdrawal. A student's record is reviewed annually and recommendations for readmission are made by the graduate programs.

M = International Students

Graduates of international colleges and universities who have the equivalent of an American bachelor's degree and international students who have graduated from American universities may compete for admission and financial assistance at Brandeis, which is authorized under federal law to enroll nonimmigrant alien students.

Entrance Examinations

All applicants whose native language is not English must submit the official score of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). Thorough competence in English is required for study at Brandeis. They are also advised to take the Test of Written English (TWE) and Test of Spoken English (TSE). Applicants should consult specific programs for additional test requirements. For information concerning the administration of the TOEFL, write to the Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey 08541-6155.

Financial Aid

Financial aid in the form of scholarships, fellowships, teaching assistantships, and research assistantships is available to only a few of the most outstanding students. In any case, the total assistance offered usually covers only a small proportion of the student's total annual expenses. Hence students, when applying for admission, should indicate a means of financial support.


The regulations of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service limit strictly the amount of paid work that a student from abroad may do. The International Students and Scholars Office will provide further information regarding this issue.

M = Requirements for the Degree

The following general requirements apply to the awarding of graduate degrees in all areas of study. For specific program requirements students should consult the appropriate section of this Bulletin. Requirements for post-baccalaureate certificate and diploma programs are listed in the relevant program sections of this Bulletin.

S = Master of Arts and Master of Science

In order to qualify for a master's degree, the student must complete a minimum of one year's residency at Brandeis University, ordinarily computed as eight term courses of approved study. Some programs require a two-year residency. Please consult the appropriate program for detailed information. Programs offering master's programs may require that the candidate demonstrate a reading knowledge of at least one foreign language and pass satisfactorily a general or qualifying examination which, at the program's discretion, may be in one or more parts and may be written, oral or both. Where a thesis is required for the master's degree, two copies must be submitted to the program chair in final form by the date specified in the current academic calendar.

The master's degree must be earned within four years from the inception of graduate study at Brandeis University.

S = Master of Fine Arts

In order to qualify for the degree of Master of Fine Arts in Music, the candidate must complete a two-year residency at Brandeis University, ordinarily computed as 12 term courses at the graduate level, and must meet the specific requirements for the degree as set forth under Music, Requirements for the Master of Fine Arts Degree, in a later section of this Bulletin. Two copies of the thesis or composition must be submitted to the program chair in final form by the date specified in the current academic calendar.

In order to qualify for the degree of Master of Fine Arts in Theater Arts, the candidate must complete a two-year residency in acting, dramatic writing, and dramaturgy, or a three-year residency in design, and meet the specific requirements for the degree as outlined under Theater Arts, Requirements for the Master of Fine Arts Degree, in a later section of this Bulletin. Students enrolled for specialization in dramatic writing must submit two copies of a play in final form in lieu of a thesis.

The Master of Fine Arts degree must be earned within five years from the inception of graduate study at Brandeis University.

S = Doctor of Philosophy

In order to qualify for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, a student must ordinarily complete a minimum of four years of graduate study, including three full years of residence and a fourth year devoted to the preparation of a doctoral dissertation. Under certain conditions, credit for advanced standing will be granted for work taken in residence in graduate schools of other universities. Each program reserves the right to require prospective candidates for the degree to perform work in excess of its minimum standards to assure thorough mastery of the area.

Prospective candidates may be required to demonstrate proficiency in at least one foreign language. In all areas of study the student must satisfactorily pass a general or qualifying examination which, at the program's discretion, may be in one or more parts and may be written, oral, or both. In addition, all prospective candidates must write a doctoral dissertation and defend it in a Final Oral Examination.

To be eligible for the Ph.D. degree, the student must have (1) completed all course and residence requirements, (2) passed all language and qualifying examinations, and (3) written and successfully defended the doctoral dissertation.

Students entering Brandeis University with no previous graduate work must earn the doctorate within eight years from the inception of study. Students who are granted credit for a year of graduate work completed elsewhere must earn the degree within seven years from the inception of their study at Brandeis.

Students who have passed the terminal point for the degree must apply to the Graduate School for an extension no later than the final semester prior to the expiration of their time to degree.

S = Language Requirements

There is no University requirement for foreign language competency at either the master's or doctoral level.

Each program determines which languages are acceptable as satisfying its foreign language requirement. Some programs may not require foreign language competency, while others may set requirements that will vary within the subfields offered by those programs. In programs where languages are required, students are expected to satisfy the requirement as soon as possible.

For specific requirements of each program, consult the program listing in this Bulletin.

S = Joint Degrees

Interdisciplinary in design, the joint M.A. degree in women's studies and a discipline aims to give Ph.D. students a solid grounding in their discipline-specific program while offering them the tools with which to incorporate women's studies into their areas of research. This joint master's option, along the way to the Ph.D., is available in several programs that are listed in the women's studies section of the catalog. Regarding the joint Ph.D. degree in NEJS and sociology, consult the relevant section of this Bulletin.

Students who are interested in designing a joint Ph.D. degree in two doctoral programs within the University may do so by petitioning the graduate school with their proposed program of study early in their graduate career. The admissions committees for both programs must approve the petition. It is understood that the student must satisfy all the requirements of both programs and defend one dissertation before a defense committee comprised of faculty from both programs. Students should consult the associate dean of graduate education for more specific information about applying for a joint doctoral degree.

S = Application for Graduate Degrees and Post-Baccalaureate Certificates and Diplomas

Candidates for graduate degrees, certificates, and diplomas must file an application with the University Registrar's office per the specified dates in the academic calendar in the year in which the degree, certificate, or diploma is to be awarded. Upon written recommendation from a candidate's program or committee that the application be approved, the record will be reviewed by the Graduate Council, which recommends the student to the University's Board of Trustees for the award of the degree, certificate, or diploma. In case of failure or withdrawal from candidacy in any year, the student must reapply by filing a new application in a later year.

Under special circumstances, a student in the post-baccalaureate studio art program may be given permission to return for an additional one or two semesters. In this instance, the student would receive the certificate at the end of his or her extended course of study.

S = Dissertation and Final Oral Examination

When a student is ready to write the doctoral dissertation, a dissertation reading committee of no fewer than three faculty members, at least one of whom is a tenured member of the faculty, will be appointed by the chair of the student's program. The student's principal advisor will serve as the chair of this committee. The dissertation reading committee will guide the research for and preparation of the dissertation. This committee, with the approval of the associate dean for graduate education and of the chair of the student's program, will appoint a dissertation examining committee to preside over the student's Final Oral Examination and will notify the candidate of the time and place of the Final Oral Examination at least three weeks prior to the scheduled date of the examination. Two copies of the dissertation, as well as an abstract of no more than 350 words, should be submitted to the dissertation reading committee for approval. The style and format of the dissertation is determined by each program.

The dissertation, when approved by the readers, must then be deposited in the program office where it will be available for inspection by all interested members of the faculty for at least two weeks prior to the Final Oral Examination.

The program will publish the time and place of the candidate's Final Oral Examination and the title of the doctoral dissertation. The Final Oral Examination will be open to any member of the faculty engaged in graduate instruction and invited faculty members from other institutions.

The dissertation examining committee, approved by the program chair and the associate dean for graduate education, must be comprised of a minimum of three faculty examiners, at least one of whom shall be a tenured member of the faculty and one of whom shall be from a graduate program outside the student's own, in a related area. The latter may be a faculty member from another university.

The examination may be restricted to a defense of the dissertation or may cover the whole field of the dissertation. The candidate will be notified by his or her program of responsibility for coverage prior to the examination.

A report, signed by the dissertation examining committee, certifying the candidate's successful performance on the Final Oral Examination, will be submitted to the University Registrar.

If the dissertation examining committee requires substantial revisions of the dissertation text, the revisions must be completed and accepted by the committee within six months of the dissertation defense, otherwise the dissertation must be redefended.

S = Deposit and Publication of Dissertation

No later than the dates specified in the current academic calendar for February and May degrees, the candidate must deposit in the Graduate School office two copies of the finished dissertation, including the original typescript, in a state suitable for microfilm and Xerox publication. Both copies of the dissertation must have the signed approval of the dissertation supervisor and readers. One copy will be retained by the graduate program, the other will be returned to the student, both bound. The candidate must also submit two copies of an abstract of the dissertation, not to exceed 350 words, that has been approved by the dissertation supervisor.

Detailed instructions for submitting dissertations are available from the Graduate School office. See also the statement in this Bulletin, under Fees and Expenses, on the final doctoral fee.

M = Academic Regulations

S = Registration

Every resident and post-resident student must register at the beginning of each term, whether attending regular courses of study, carrying on research or independent reading, writing a thesis or dissertation, or utilizing any academic service or facility of the University. Continuation students eligible for loans or requiring loan deferments must also register.

S = Program of Study

Before enrolling, the student should plan a program of study in consultation with the chair or graduate advisor of the program.

Graduate students may not register for an undergraduate course (numbered below 100) for degree, certificate, or diploma credit unless they complete a special petition available in the Office of the University Registrar, which requires the signatures of the instructor of that course and their program chair or graduate advisor. Credit will not be given for undergraduate courses taken to make up deficiencies in the student's preparation for a program of graduate studies. Ordinarily a student may not receive credit toward completion of degree or residence requirements for courses undertaken to aid in the completion of language requirements. Students wishing to drop a full-year course at midyear must complete a special petition available in the Office of the University Registrar, which requires the signatures of the instructor of the course and the chair of their program.

At the end of telephone registration (see Academic Calendar for specific date), all course enrollments are considered to be final.

S = Auditing Courses

The privilege of auditing courses without fee is extended to all regularly enrolled graduate students except Special Students. Special students may audit courses by paying for them at the same rate as those taken for credit. No courses may be audited without the permission of the instructor. Auditors may not take examinations or expect evaluation from the instructor. No credit is given for an audited course.

S = Change of Program

Students are allowed to drop courses after the end of telephone registration. To do so, a program change form is obtained from and returned to the Office of the University Registrar. Courses must be dropped no later than one week prior to the beginning of an examination period.

S = Registration in Terms of Time

Advanced students may register in terms of time. Registration in terms of time is a device that helps to individualize programs of study and permits increased freedom for independent research for advanced graduate students. Registration in terms of time frees students to pursue a program of study that partially accepts or bypasses altogether the system of formal courses. Their time will be spent in such research and reading as will be most beneficial to their development as scholars.

S = Absence from Examinations

Students who are absent from a midyear or final examination without an accepted excuse will receive a failing grade for that examination. No students may be excused from such examination unless for emergency or medical reasons, nor may they be excused if they were able to notify the instructor in advance and failed to do so. Cases involving absence are referred to the chair of the program who will decide whether a make-up examination shall be allowed and will notify the Office of the University Registrar of the decision. The examination must be taken within six weeks of the opening of the next term.

S = Grades and Course Standards

Graduate students are expected to maintain records of distinction in all courses. Letter grades will be used in all courses in which grading is possible. In readings or research courses, if a letter grade cannot be given at the end of each term or academic year, credit ("CR") or no credit ("NC") may be used.

"NC" and any letter grade below B- are unsatisfactory grades in the Graduate School. A course in which the student receives an unsatisfactory grade will not be counted toward graduate credit. Post-baccalaureate and diploma students must have at least a B- average to be eligible for the certificate or diploma.

At the end of each academic year the Office of the University Registrar issues to each student a formal grade report.

S = Incompletes

A student who has not completed the research or written work for any course may receive an "EI" (incomplete) or a failing grade at the discretion of the course instructor. A student who receives an "EI" must satisfactorily complete the work of the course in which the incomplete was given in order to receive credit for the course and a letter grade. An incomplete, unless given by reason of the student's failure to attend a final examination, must be made up no later than the end of the term following the term in which it was received. When failure to take a final examination has resulted in an "EI," resolution of that "EI" to a letter grade must occur within six weeks of the beginning of the next term. An "EI" that is not resolved within the stated time limits will automatically become a permanent incomplete ("XI"). A student may petition the associate dean for graduate education for a change in a permanent incomplete, provided the petition is signed by the instructor of the course and the program chair.

S = Credit for Work Done Elsewhere

Graduate-level courses taken prior to matriculation at Brandeis may not be applied to reduce a one-year residence requirement for the master of arts or master of science degree, although a program may accept work taken elsewhere in partial fulfillment of specific course requirements for the degree. In that case, additional courses are designated to replace courses from which the student has been exempted. The post-baccalaureate and diploma programs do not accept transfer credit.

A maximum of one term of residence credit for graduate-level courses may be counted toward fulfillment of the residence requirements for the master of fine arts degree and for the master's degree programs that have a two-year residence requirement.

Students admitted to Ph.D. programs may file an application to have graduate-level courses counted toward fulfillment of residence requirements at this institution. A maximum of one year of residence credit may be granted.

Applicants for transfer credit will not necessarily be granted the credit requested. Each program reserves the right to require of any student work in excess of its minimum standards to assure thorough mastery of the area of study. In all cases, courses being transferred must carry a grade of B or better and must have been earned at an appropriately accredited institution.

After completing one term of residence at a full-time rate or the equivalent at a part-time rate, students eligible to apply for transfer credit may do so. Forms are obtained from the Office of the University Registrar and submitted to the student's program for approval. The form is then returned to the Office of the University Registrar.

Credit for work at another institution taken concurrently with studies in the Graduate School must be approved for potential transfer credit by both the student's program and the associate dean for graduate education prior to registration for such courses. Such approval is granted only in unusual circumstances. Students who formally cross-register with Boston College, Boston University, or Tufts University through the consortium do not need prior approval from the dean's office nor is it required for coursework at the Graduate Consortium for Women's Studies at Radcliffe College.

S = Residence Requirements

Residence requirements for all graduate degrees are computed by determining the amount of registration for credit and the tuition charges. Part-time students pursuing part-time programs of study for credit complete their residence requirements when their fractional programs (one-quarter, one-half, three-quarters) total the amount required of a full-time student.

T = Master of Arts and Master of Science

The minimum residence requirement for most master's degree students is one academic year in a full-time graduate credit program at the full tuition or the equivalent thereof in part-time study. A few programs have a two-year residency requirement so consult specific programs for this information. Transfer credit may not normally be applied to residence requirements for the M.A. and M.S. degrees.

T = Master of Fine Arts

The minimum residence requirement for all M.F.A. students in music is four terms at a full-time rate, at the full tuition rate for each term, or the equivalent thereof in part-time study. Residence may be reduced by a maximum of one term with approved transfer credit.

The minimum residence requirement for acting, dramatic writing, and dramaturgy students in theater arts is four terms at the full tuition rate or the equivalent thereof in part-time study. The minimum residence for students in design is six terms at the full tuition rate or the equivalent thereof in part-time study. Residence may be reduced by a maximum of one term with approved transfer credit.

T = Doctor of Philosophy

The residence requirement for all students is three academic years in a full-time graduate credit program for each year, at the full tuition rate for each year, or the equivalent thereof in part-time study. A maximum of one year's approved transfer credit may be granted toward residence for the Ph.D. degree.

S = Full-Time Resident Students

A full-time student is one who devotes the entire time, during the course of the academic year, to a program of graduate work at Brandeis University.

A full-time program may include a combination of teaching and research assistance, work leading to the fulfillment of degree requirements, such as preparation for qualifying, comprehensive, and final examinations, supervised reading and research, and Ph.D. dissertations, as well as regular course work.

A full-time resident student may take as many courses for credit in any term as are approved by the program chair, but no student may receive credit for, or be charged for, more than a full-time program in any term. Thus the minimum residence requirement for any degree may not be satisfied by an accelerated program of study or payment of more than the full-time tuition rate in any single academic year.

S = Part-Time Resident Students

A part-time student is one who devotes less than the entire time to a program of graduate work at Brandeis University. Students may register for a credit program of one-quarter, one-half, or three-quarters time.

Students receiving financial aid from the University, who wish to change their status from full-time to part-time residency, must file with the Graduate School office an explanation of why full-time study is no longer possible.

S = Post-Resident Students

A graduate student who has completed residence requirements and who needs to utilize the full range of academic services and University facilities while completing degree requirements is a post-resident student.

S = Continuation Students

A graduate student who has completed all degree requirements except the dissertation is eligible for continuation status. A student in this category is presumed to be part-time and, thus, not normally eligible for a leave of absence, except for health reasons. Students who can certify they are full-time are eligible for federal and/or institutional loans or loan deferments and University health insurance if they register. Students may have borrowing privileges in the Library, maintain a computer account, use gym facilities, and purchase a parking sticker. They are not normally eligible for fellowship, teaching, or research assistantships. Continuation students are not normally obliged to register; however, they must pay the continuation fee or be liable to withdrawal for nonpayment.

S = Post-Baccalaureate Students

A post-baccalaureate or diploma student is a graduate student who is working in an approved course of study. Normal tuition charges apply; see the fees and expenses section for program-specific fees.

Post-baccalaureate or diploma programs may not be pursued concurrently with other formal degree work. Students who subsequently become candidates for graduate degrees are subject to the Graduate School's policy regarding transfer credit towards graduate degrees.

S = Special Students

Properly qualified applicants who wish to audit or to take courses without working for a degree may be admitted. Special Students are normally not eligible for University loans, scholarships, fellowships, or teaching or research assistantships. Special Students who later wish to change their status to that of part-time or full-time students working for a degree must apply for admission as resident students. They must also file a special petition if they wish credit to be accepted for any courses taken at Brandeis as Special Students. Credit for such course work may be granted in exceptional cases. Normally, no more than two courses taken for credit may be transferable if the student is admitted to either the master's or doctoral program.

S = Leave of Absence

Students may petition for a leave of absence. The petition must have the approval of both the chair of the program and the Graduate School. Leaves of absence up to one year will normally be granted to students in good academic standing who present compelling personal reasons. Time spent on authorized leaves of absence will not be counted toward the maximum time permitted to complete degree requirements.

If for any reason a student must extend a leave of absence, he or she must request such an extension in writing before the leave of absence expires. Failure to do so will result in involuntary withdrawal from the Graduate School.

S = Leave of Absence with Credit

Students enrolled in a Ph.D. or master's program with a two-year residency may apply to study abroad with credit. While this option does not affect the current regulation concerning the maximum amount of transfer credit for work done elsewhere, it does allow a student to receive transfer credit after matriculation.

To qualify for transfer credit upon return, a student must submit to his or her program prior to studying abroad a list of proposed courses to be approved by the graduate program chair. The courses must be at the graduate level and constitute a full-time course load. Since the Registrar must certify full-time status for purposes of loan deferment and federal loan eligibility, the application must include documentation related to the formulation of full-time status at the host school as well as the name of the contact person at the host school. To receive credit upon return, a student must earn grades of at least B- and submit an official transcript along with the Transfer for Credit petition to the Registrar's office.

S = Degree Pending

This designation applies to graduate students who have completed all degree requirements including final defense of the dissertation, with only minor revisions remaining. Students in this category are not eligible to use any academic services or University facilities nor are they eligible for student loans or loan deferments.

S = Withdrawal

A student who wishes to withdraw voluntarily from the Graduate School during a semester must do so in writing to the program chair and the Graduate School on or before the last day of instruction in the term. Failure to comply may subject the student to involuntary withdrawal, cancellation of eligibility to receive an official transcript, and loss of eligibility for refunds in accordance with the refund schedule outlined in the fees and expenses section. Permission to withdraw voluntarily will not be granted if the student has not discharged all financial obligations to the University or has not made financial arrangements satisfactory to the Bursar.

Students who are obliged to register and fail to do so by the appropriate deadline or who fail to pay their bill will be administratively withdrawn. They may be readmitted (see below) for study in a subsequent term, but not for the term in which they were rendered inactive for failure to register. Belatedly fulfilling financial obligations will not negate the effects of administrative withdrawal.

S = Readmission

A student who has not been enrolled in the Graduate School for more than one year and who did not obtain a leave of absence should file an application for readmission. Students who have not been enrolled for more than two years will be charged a readmission fee. The student's graduate program will determine in each case whether a student should be readmitted. If the program's requirements have changed during the student's absence or the student is not deemed current in his or her field of study, the program may require the student to repeat or supplement previous academic requirements including foreign language or qualifying exams. When a student is reinstated, he or she will be informed of current status regarding credits and time to degree.

S = Graduate Cross-Registration

A full-time graduate student at Brandeis University may enroll in one graduate course each term at Boston College, Boston University, Tufts University, or the Graduate Consortium in Women's Studies at Radcliffe College. Information on courses for cross-registration at each of the host institutions is available at the Graduate School office of each institution.

A student who wishes to enroll in a course at one of these institutions should consult with the instructor in the particular course and should expect to satisfy the prerequisites and requirements normally required for admission to the course, including adherence to the academic calendar of that course.

A student at Brandeis University who wishes to enroll in a graduate course at one of the host institutions should obtain a registration permit from the Office of the University Registrar and should present this permit to the Office of the University Registrar of the host institution.

M = Fees and Expenses

Payment of tuition and other fees are due on August 4, 1997, for the fall semester and January 2, 1998, for the spring semester. A student who has not paid such fees by the day of registration will be refused the privilege of registration.

The Nine-Payment Plan allows the year's charges to be paid in nine (9) equal monthly installments. Knight College Resource Group handles our Nine Month Payment Plan. The application and a nonrefundable handling fee of $100 must be returned to Knight by June 10, 1997. The payment plan electronic withdrawals will begin on July 1, 1997.

A student who defaults in the payment of indebtedness to the University shall be subject to suspension, dismissal, and refusal of a transfer of credits or issuance of an official transcript.

Such indebtedness includes, but is not limited to, delinquency of a borrower in repaying a loan administered by the student loan office and the inability of that office to collect such a loan because the borrower has discharged the indebtedness through bankruptcy proceedings. If the student is a degree, certificate, or diploma candidate, his or her name will be stricken from the rolls.

A student who has been suspended or dismissed for nonpayment of indebtedness to the University may not be reinstated until such indebtedness is paid in full.

Application Fee: $40 or $60.

Payable by all applicants for admission at the time the application for admission is submitted. The fee is $40 for applications postmarked by December 1, 1997, and $60 after that date. It is not refundable. Checks and money orders should be made payable to Brandeis University. No application for admission will be processed until this fee is paid. There is a one-time fee waiver for Brandeis students and alumni.

Matriculation Deposit: $300.

Payable by a master's degree, certificate, or diploma applicant upon notification of acceptance. This fee reserves a place in the class and is credited toward the first semester tuition bill. If a student fails to enroll or withdraws his or her application, the matriculation deposit is forfeited.

Tuition Fees

The fees for tuition in the Graduate School for 1997-98 are as follows:

Full-time resident students: $22,360 per year, or $11,180 per term.

Post-resident students: $1,400 per year.

Continuation Fee: $700 per year.

Post-baccalaureate studio art students, modern Hebrew pedagogy students, and Artist diploma students: $11,180 per year.

Special students, post-baccalaureate premedical students, and part-time resident students: $2,795 per course, per term.

In view of the constantly increasing costs of education, students may expect one or more tuition increases during their academic careers.

Post-Baccalaureate Program Fee

Premedical program: $100, one-time fee payable on entrance.

Studio art program: $760 per year.

Sustainable International Development Administrative Fee: $160. A one-time fee payable in the second year.

Orientation Fee: $35.

A one-time fee payable by students entering for the first time.

Graduate Student Activities Fee: $10 per year.

Final Doctoral Fee: $325.

This fee covers all costs for the year in which the Ph.D. degree will be conferred, including the costs for the microfilm publication of the dissertation, publication of the abstract of the dissertation in Dissertation Abstracts, issuance of a Library of Congress number and appropriate library cards, binding two copies of the dissertation, one for use in the program and one Xerox-printed copy in book form for the author. The Final Doctoral Fee covers the rental expenses for academic robes for graduation and the cost of the diploma.

NOTE: All candidates for the Ph.D. degree must pay the $325 Final Doctoral Fee prior to the receipt of their degrees.

Service Fee:

A service fee will be charged to a studentÌs account if a payment or a check negotiated through Brandeis is returned by the bank for any reason.

Readmission Fee: $300.

Payable by a student who, after withdrawal, suspension, or dismissal for more than two years, has been reinstated with the consent of the dean of arts and sciences.

Transcript Fee: $2.

Students, former students, and graduates should request official transcripts of their records from the Office of the University Registrar, Kutz Hall. The charge is $2 for each copy issued after the first one, which is free. Requests by mail for transcripts must be accompanied by a check in the correct amount payable to Brandeis University. Official transcripts will be issued only to those students whose University financial records are in order.

Diploma Fee: $45.

Payable by candidates for the master's degree.

Student Health Services Fee: $335.

Entitles the full-time graduate student to use of the Health Services.

Student Insurance Fee (Brandeis Plan): $665.

Payment of the Insurance Fee entitles the full-time graduate student to participate in the benefits of the Health Insurance Program. The fee is payable prior to registration and no portion is refundable. Student insurance is optional for special students. Additional insurance options, including family coverage, are described in A Guide to University Health Services which is available from the Office of Health Services.

Parking Fee: $35-$150.

Payable annually at fall registration for privilege of parking an automobile on campus. Fee varies with assigned parking area.

S = Refunds

The only fee that may be refundable, in part, is the tuition fee. No refund of the tuition fee will be made because of illness, absence, or dismissal during the academic year. A student who is withdrawing must notify the Graduate School in writing; refunds will be based on the date of notification and calculated in accordance with the following:

1. Tuition


Before the opening day of instruction: 100% of the term's tuition.

On or before the second Friday following the opening day of instruction: 75% of the term's tuition.

On or before the fifth Friday following the opening day of instruction: 50% of the term's tuition.

After the fifth Friday following the opening day of instruction: no refund.

Requests for refunds should be addressed to the Bursar's office.

2. Scholarship

In the case of a scholarship student who withdraws, the student's account will be credited with the same proportion of the term scholarship as charged for tuition: 75% if the student leaves on or before the second Friday; 50% on or before the fifth Friday and no refund thereafter.

3. Stafford Loans

In compliance with federal law, special refund arrangements apply to first-time students receiving aid under Title IV. Contact the Graduate School financial aid officer for additional information.

M = Financial Assistance

To help students whose records indicate scholarly promise, the University makes available special scholarships and fellowships and a variety of awards and work opportunities. All awards are granted and accepted with the understanding that they may be revoked or reduced at any time for undesirable conduct or poor academic standing.

Ordinarily, no student may hold a fellowship, scholarship, or teaching assistantship for more than two years of study for the master's degree, more than three years of study for the M.F.A. degree, or more than four years of study for the Ph.D. degree. Priority in making awards is given to full-time students.

Students receiving financial aid from Brandeis University, whether in the form of a scholarship, fellowship, or teaching/research assistantship, are required to maintain a superior level of academic progress.

All students contemplating outside employment that would require a significant portion of their time should discuss their intentions with their program advisor.

S = Scholarships

A scholarship is an award on grounds of scholarly ability that will be used exclusively for remission of tuition fees. Full scholarships and partial scholarships are available. Scholarship students are liable for all but tuition charges. No services are required of students for scholarship awards.

S = Fellowships

A fellowship is an academic award of honor to outstanding students to help them in furthering advanced study and research. The award may carry with it the obligation to participate in teaching and/or research duties. A fellowship recipient must pay tuition fees unless the award includes a scholarship in an amount covering tuition.

S = Teaching Assistantships

Teaching assignments, when not included in a fellowship award, are given normally to resident and post-resident students in the Graduate School who do part-time teaching as part of their training and are paid. The University has established teaching assistantships to enable distinguished graduate students to gain teaching experience while continuing their studies. Teaching assistants are eligible for other awards, including scholarships and fellowships.

Teaching assistantship appointments are made on the authority of the President of the University with the approval of the associate dean of the Graduate School who, in turn, acts on the recommendation of a student's program chair. Appointments are made for periods of one year or one term and are renewable. The University reserves the right to terminate any appointment at any time for due cause. Conduct, character, or academic standing that is regarded as undesirable may constitute cause, but the University need not assign any reason for the termination of an appointment at any time. All teaching assistantship appointments are made and accepted with this understanding, and neither the University nor any of its Trustees or officers shall be under any liability whatsoever for the summary termination of a teaching assistantship.

S = Research Assistantships

Research assistantships are available in several programs, especially the science areas. Application should be made to the chair of the graduate program.

S = DeanÌs Fellowship

Brandeis University established in 1995 the DeanÌs Fellowship. This fellowship was created in order to encourage students from minority groups whose under-representation in the nationÌs Ph.D. population has been severe and long-standing to pursue doctoral studies in the humanities, social sciences, and creative arts at the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences at Brandeis. The DeanÌs Fellowship will provide four years of funding with a nine-month stipend, assuming satisfactory academic progress. During the last three years, the recipient of the DeanÌs Fellowship will be expected to serve as a teaching assistant in one course per year.

Students who are eligible for this fellowship are Native Americans/Alaskan natives, Hispanic/Latinos, Filipinos, African-Americans, and Asian-Americans, who are United States citizens. In order to qualify for the DeanÌs Fellowship, applicants must be nominated by one of the following programs: American history, anthropology, comparative history, English and American literature, interdisciplinary program in literary studies, music, Near Eastern and Judaic studies, psychology, politics, or sociology.

Students who wish to be considered for the DeanÌs Fellowship should express their interest in the statement of purpose included with their application.

S = Tuition Grants

A limited number of need-based grants are available (up to a maximum of 25% of tuition for masterÌs candidates and 50% for Ph.D. candidates) to students who do not receive program funding, and who are enrolled at least half-time. Students may apply for need-based grants by completing the CSS financial aid PROFILE.

S = Loans

Subsidized Federal Stafford Loans are available to U.S. citizens and permanent residents who are enrolled at least half-time in a degree, certificate, or diploma program and who demonstrate need for them by filing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). Graduate students may borrow up to $8,500 per year in subsidized money. Post-baccalaureate certificate students may borrow up to $5,500 per year. The maximum aggregate limit for the program (including undergraduate borrowing) is $65,500.

Unsubsidized Federal Stafford Loans are available to students who are not eligible for subsidized Stafford Loans based on need. Applicants must still file the FAFSA. Graduate students may borrow up to a maximum of $10,000 a year ($5,000 for independent post-baccalaureate students) with an aggregate maximum of $73,000 in unsubsidized money. Eligible students may borrow from both the subsidized and unsubsidized Stafford programs as long as the annual total does not exceed $18,500.

Repayment of a Stafford Loan begins six months after the borrower ceases to be enrolled at least half-time. The repayment period is 10 years, during which time interest is charged. There is no interest charged during the in-school period for subsidized loans. However, students are required to pay the interest during the in-school period or have it capitalized and added to the loan balance for the unsubsidized loan.

The terms for the above loan programs are subject to federal legislation and may change. Additional current information is available from the Graduate School.

Students wishing to apply for a Stafford should contact the Graduate School for application materials.

S = Satisfactory Academic Progress

Federal regulations require that a student receiving federal assistance make satisfactory academic progress in accordance with standards set by the University. The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences delegates the responsibility to monitor academic progress to the individual graduate programs. Admission to the Graduate School is valid for one academic year. Graduate programs review students' academic progress and make recommendations for readmission annually. Any student who is readmitted for the following year is considered to be making satisfactory academic progress and is eligible for financial aid from federal sources.

Students who enter the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences must earn the Doctorate within eight years, the Master of Arts within four years, the Master of Fine Arts within five years, and the Post-baccalaureate Certificate and the Diploma within two years from the inception of study exclusive of leaves of absence (pro-rated for part-time study). Students who have passed the terminal point for the degree may apply to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences for an extension and, if approved, may be eligible for additional federal financial aid.

M = Courses of Instruction

Listed on the following pages are undergraduate and graduate courses of instruction for the faculty of arts and sciences. Courses meet for three hours a week unless otherwise specified.

Most courses are available to all students qualified to take them. Access to some courses is governed by the signature of the instructor. Other courses impose a numerical limit to preserve environmental conditions suitable to the pedagogy the instructor employs; students increase their chances of gaining enrollment in such courses by participating in pre-enrollment.

Each semester the University makes a serious effort to ensure that numerous alternatives exist by which to make progress toward University requirements; however, it cannot guarantee access on demand to a particular course or to a particular section of a multisectioned course.

Generally, a course is offered with the frequency indicated at the end of its description. The frequency may be designated as every semester, every year, in even years (e.g. 1996-97), in odd years (e.g. 1997-98), every third year, or every fourth year.

Courses numbered 1-99 are primarily for undergraduate students; courses numbered 100-199 are for both undergraduate and graduate students; and courses numbered 200 and above are primarily for graduate students. Undergraduates may not enroll in courses numbered 200 or higher without the written permission of the instructor.

Among the courses numbered 200 and higher are courses in the Florence Heller Graduate School for Advanced Studies and Social Welfare. Undergraduates may enroll only in those Heller School courses which are appropriate for an undergraduate arts and sciences degree. Such courses are listed in this Bulletin.

Suffixes after course numbers have the following meanings:

L =

A or B semester course

L =

C semester course meeting throughout the year

L =

D full-year course

L =

E intensive course, two semester course credits, in one semester

L =

F half semester course, half-course credit (Graduate School of International Economics and Finance only)

L =

A semester course carries one semester-course credit (four semester-hour credits) while a year course carries two semester-course credits (eight semester-hour credits). Exceptions are noted under the individual course descriptions. Certain courses do not count for rate of work and do not carry course credit toward graduation. Occasionally, courses are awarded additional semester-hour credits, yet count as only one semester course toward graduation. All such courses are specifically identified in the course listing. Certain courses require a laboratory course taken concurrently.

A student may take either half of a full-year course with a D suffix for credit with the approval and consent of the course instructor on the appropriate form designated by the Office of the University Registrar. Students who enrolled in full-year courses in the fall term are continued in the spring term automatically.

The University reserves the right to make any necessary changes in the offerings without prior notice.