Brandeis is closely monitoring our local, regional and national public health situation regarding the global outbreak of monkeypox. Student Health Services is training our staff and developing plans to identify, test, treat, isolate, manage contacts, and monitor cases should they occur in our campus community. Furthermore, we want to encourage the entire community to familiarize themselves with the basic facts about monkeypox and to take steps to prevent its spread.
What Is Monkeypox?
Monkeypox is a rare disease caused by infection with the monkeypox virus. Monkeypox virus is part of the same family of viruses that causes smallpox. Monkeypox symptoms are similar to smallpox symptoms, but milder, and monkeypox is rarely fatal. It can cause flu-like symptoms and a rash, sometimes the rash can be quite painful.
Monkeypox is not a sexually transmitted disease as it can be transmitted by any direct physical contact between someone’s rash, scabs, bodily fluids and another person, this can include sexual activity but also includes any touching of the lesions/rash between people or even touching clothing or bedding that an infected person used.
In this current outbreak many of the cases to date are related to individuals who contracted it due to close physical contact during sexual activity.
How Is Monkeypox Spread?
- Monkeypox is spread through:
- direct contact with an infectious rash, scabs, or body fluids
- respiratory secretions during prolonged, face-to-face contact, or during intimate physical contact, such as kissing, cuddling, or sex
- touching objects, fabrics (such as clothing or linens) that previously touched the rash or body fluids of someone with monkeypox
- being scratched or bitten by an infected animal
- Monkeypox can be acquired by all people, regardless of gender identity or sexual orientation
- Monkeypox causes a rash
- Monkeypox can spread from the time symptoms start until the rash has fully healed and a fresh layer of skin has formed. This can take several weeks.
Signs and Symptoms
Monkeypox often starts with flu like symptoms or sometimes with a rash only. The rash can have many lesions scattered over the body but sometimes a person might only have a few lesions. Symptoms of monkeypox can include:
- Muscle aches and backache
- Swollen lymph nodes
- A rash that can look like pimples or blisters that appears on the face, inside the mouth, and on other parts of the body, like the hands, feet, chest, genitals, or anus.
- The rash goes through different stages before healing completely. The illness typically lasts 2-4 weeks. Sometimes, people get a rash first, followed by other symptoms. Others only experience a rash.
What To Do
If you think you may have monkeypox, seek medical care and avoid close physical contact and gatherings, including sex with others until you know for sure. Wear a mask and cover your rash when you need to go out for medical appointments. Talk to your close contacts about any recent illnesses or rashes they might have.
If you have a rash and think you might be at risk for monkeypox due to an exposure or high-risk activities call Student Health Services at 781-736-3677 for an appointment with a provider. Make sure to wear a mask and to cover any rash or lesions you have with clothing and let staff know as soon as possible why you are there.
Student Health Services can conduct monkeypox testing, results may take a few days.If your provider is concerned you may have monkeypox you will need to isolate until you get results.
People with monkeypox should follow these recommendations until cleared by state or local public health officials:
- Stay home except to receive medical care
- Avoid close contact with others
- Friends, family, or others without an essential need to be in the home should not visit
- Cover all your lesions and wear a mask when in close contact with others
- Routinely clean and disinfect commonly touched surfaces and items, such as counters or light switches, using an EPA-registered disinfectant (such as List Q) in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions
- Do not engage in sexual activity that involves direct physical contact. Review the CDC's guidance on monkeypox and safer sex.
- Do not share clothing, bedding, towels, utensils, etc
- Avoid your rash touching upholstered surfaces on furniture
- Do your own laundry (normal washing practices are sufficient)
- Avoid close contact with any pets (to the extent possible)
- Try to avoid public transportation
- Avoid use of contact lenses to prevent inadvertent infection of the eye
- Avoid shaving rash-covered areas of the body as this can lead to spread of the virus
How to Reduce Spread
- Avoid close contact (including sexual contact) with people who are sick or have a rash and their household/contaminated items.
- Decrease the number of sex and intimate contact partners.
- Avoid gatherings where people wear minimal clothing and have direct, intimate, skin-to-skin contact.
- Be mindful of activities (e.g., kissing, sharing drinks and eating utensils) that might increase the risk for spreading monkeypox whenever you gather with others.
Is There a Monkeypox Vaccine?
When properly administered before or after a recent exposure, vaccines can be effective tools at protecting people against monkeypox illness and can make it less severe after exposure.
Supplies of the monkeypox vaccine are currently limited, both locally and nationally. Currently (8/15/2022) vaccine is limited in Massachusetts and is prioritized for those exposed or at most risk. Once supply increases, the University will strive to obtain vaccine to administer as appropriate according to CDC guidance.If you are outside of Massachusetts, the CDC has a US Map and case count. For information on what your state is doing, please visit the state public health department. If you are outside of the United States, the World Health Organization has global information and we recommend reviewing your country’s public health agency website.