Citation Systems and Formatting

Brandeis Library Research Guide: Citing Sources

This guide provides an overview of citation management software offered at Brandeis, as well as information on print and online citation guides.

MLA Style

The MLA (Modern Language Association) citation style uses in-text citations containing the author and page number, complemented by a Works Cited section at the end. MLA style is most commonly used within language arts, cultural studies, and other humanities disciplines.

A handy guide to MLA, APA, and Chicago styles with exercises. Hard copy available in the Library.

Offers an overview of the basics of MLA style, including the new "container" structure introduced in MLA Eighth Edition

Provides great tips and illustrations on the practicalities of formatting everything from headers to lists to captions for images

This Brandeis Library guide provides useful guidelines, examples, and tutorials for using MLA style.

A useful quick guide to the basics of MLA citation

A great online overview of the most common elements in MLA citation

Includes direction for citing YouTube videos, blogs, and web publications

A four-page quick guide to MLA citation complete with examples

The Purdue OWL provides this sample MLA paper complete with helpful annotations highlighting key aspects of the citation and formatting.

APA Style

The APA (American Psychological Association) citation style uses in-text citations containing the author and page number, complemented by a References section at the end. APA style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.

A handy guide to MLA, APA, and Chicago styles with exercises. Hard copy available in the Library.

The home page for APA style on the website of the American Psychological Association. Contains easily navigable links to a wide range of topics such as APA paper formatting, mechanics of style, grammar, and bias-free language.

This Brandeis Library guide provides useful guidelines, examples, and tutorials for using APA style.

A useful quick guide to the basics of APA citation

A great online overview of the most common elements in APA citation

These PDF examples of papers written in APA style format illustrate various elements of APA citation.

Chicago (Notes and Bibliography) Style

The Chicago Notes and Bibliography citation style uses footnotes or endnotes containing the author, title, publication place, publisher, date, and page number. This style is most frequently used in history, literature, the arts, and other humanities disciplines.

A handy guide to MLA, APA, and Chicago styles with exercises. Hard copy available in the Library.

The freely accessible CMS Online site offers great tips and answers to the most common Chicago style citation question.

The definitive rulebook to Chicago style. Online version (linked above) is available through the Brandeis Library; a hard copy is also available.

This Brandeis Library guide provides useful guidelines, examples, and tutorials for using Chicago N&B style.

A great online overview of the most common elements in Chicago citation

This PDF example of a paper written in Chicago style format illustrates various elements of Chicago citation.