An interdepartmental program in Neuroscience

Last updated: July 22, 2014 at 1:57 p.m.

Objectives

Undergraduate Major
The major in neuroscience is designed to provide an interdisciplinary program of study of the neural mechanisms involved in the control of human or animal behavior. The major combines a strong foundation in basic science with more specialized courses in biology and psychology. This program is especially appropriate for students wishing to pursue further study in medicine, experimental psychology, or neuroscience.

Graduate Program in Neuroscience
The graduate program in neuroscience, leading to the MS and PhD degrees, is designed to equip students with the advanced knowledge and training necessary to conduct research in this interdisciplinary field. The program comprises three broadly defined areas: behavioral neuroscience involves work with humans in neuropsychology, experimental cognitive neuroscience, sensory psychophysics, animal behavior and electrophysiology; cellular and molecular neuroscience provides training in electrophysiology, molecular biology, biophysics, and biochemistry appropriate to neurobiology; and computational and integrative neuroscience trains students in the use of experimental and theoretical methods for the analysis of brain function. A typical program for the PhD student will consist of laboratory rotations and dissertation research as well as formal courses. Students pursuing the MS degree typically take graduate-level courses and do either laboratory research or an in-depth library-based thesis.

Learning Goals

Neuroscience is the study of the brain. The methods of Neuroscience come from biology, biochemistry and psychology. The goal of Neuroscience is to understand how networks of neurons can account for behavior. Neuroscience has practical applications in medicine – particularly for mental illnesses, addiction, stroke and communication disorders. Neuroscience has important implications for psychiatry, psychology, teaching and economics.

Knowledge
All neuroscience majors will demonstrate knowledge of the basic electrical, anatomical and dynamic properties of neurons and the way they function in networks.

Major topics include:

  • the structure and function of ion channels
  • the way in which channels produce neural activity
  • the properties of neurotransmitter systems and their pharmacology
  • the properties and anatomical location of brain circuits responsible for particular functions
  • the properties of synapses and the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity that underlie learning
  • the developmental principles that lead to the formation of brain networks
  • the basis of neural codes by which neurons communicate
  • the causes and mechanisms of various neurological disorders
  • the basic properties of memory, perception and motor control

Skills
Students who major in neuroscience will have the opportunity to acquire skills in:

1. Experimental laboratory work. Examples of general skills include pipetting and gel electrophoresis. More specific skills may be acquired by working in a research laboratory. These skills include brain dissection, tissue culture of neurons, techniques in optical and electron microscopy, and techniques in electrophysiology.
2. Quantitative methods. The ability to select and carry out appropriate statistical tests is necessary for any scientific research. Students interested in pursuing a research career should be able to use the scientific programming language, Matlab, to analyze data.
3. Critical thinking. The ability to form a hypothesis and then devise experiments to test that hypothesis is an important aspect of the scientific method. Students will also learn how to search, select from and evaluate scientific literature.
4. Presentation of ideas. Students will learn how to produce convincing written/oral arguments.

Social Justice
Scientific advances have produced profound changes in society and raised questions whose resolution depends on scientific literacy. Neuroscience training will equip students with the background to understand controversies related to their field (e.g. what is the meaning of “brain-dead”?).

Upon graduation
Neuroscience graduates have a wide range of career options open to them, such as medicine, work in the pharmaceutical industry, academic research, teaching, journalism and patent law.

How to Become a Major

The neuroscience major requires a strong science course load. There is a meeting each fall at which interested students can discuss the major with neuroscience faculty. Students can schedule an appointment with the Undergraduate Advising Head (Paul Miller) for further information or to enroll in the major. The requirements are listed below and include many options. It is recommended that each major meet with his or her adviser to determine which options best satisfy each student's needs. Because of the number of basic science requirements, it is recommended that students begin enrolling in these courses early, especially those listed as prerequisites for advanced courses in the major. Students interested in senior research should contact prospective mentors by the spring of their junior year.

How to Be Admitted to the Graduate Program

The general requirements for admission to the Graduate School, given in an earlier section of this Bulletin, apply here. Applicants for admission to the neuroscience program are also required to take the Graduate Record Examination. The student's undergraduate curriculum should include related fundamental science courses.

Students currently enrolled in other programs at Brandeis may elect to switch over to obtain a neuroscience PhD if they have already met or will meet the degree requirements for the neuroscience degree.

Faculty

Gina Turrigiano, Chair
(Biology; National Center for Behavioral Genomics; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Susan Birren, Dean of Arts and Sciences
(Biology; National Center for Behavioral Genomics; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Paul DiZio
(Psychology; Ashton Graybiel Spatial Orientation Laboratory; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Irving Epstein (on leave academic year 2014-2015)
(Chemistry; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Paul Garrity
(Biology; National Center for Behavioral Genomics; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Leslie Griffith (on leave fall 2014)
(Biology; National Center for Behavioral Genomics; Director, Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Angela Gutchess
(Psychology; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Lizbeth Hedstrom (on leave academic year 2014-2015)
(Biology)

Donald Katz, Graduate Advising Head
(Psychology; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

James Lackner
(Psychology; Ashton Graybiel Spatial Orientation Laboratory; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

John Lisman
(Biology; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Eve Marder (on leave academic year 2014-2015)
(Biology; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Paul Miller, Undergraduate Advising Head and Senior Honors Coordinator
(Biology; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Sacha Nelson
(Biology; National Center for Behavioral Genomics; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Daniel Oprian
(Biochemistry; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Suzanne Paradis
(Biology; National Center for Behavioral Genomics; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Avital Rodal
(Biology, Rosenstiel Center; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Nicolas Rohleder
(Psychology; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Michael Rosbash
(Biology; National Center for Behavioral Genomics; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Robert Sekuler
(Psychology; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Piali Sengupta
(Biology; National Center for Behavioral Genomics; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Stephen Van Hooser
(Biology; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Arthur Wingfield
(Psychology; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Jutta Wolf
(Psychology; Volen National Center for Complex Systems)

Affiliated Faculty (contributing to the curriculum, advising and administration of the department or program)
Susan Birren (Biology)
Irving Epstein (Chemistry)
Paul Garrity (Biology)
Leslie Griffith (Biology)
Angela Gutchess (Psychology)
Lizbeth Hedstrom (Biology)
Donald Katz (Psychology)
James Lackner (Psychology)
John Lisman (Biology)
Eve Marder (Biology)
Paul Miller (Biology)
Sacha Nelson (Biology)
Suzanne Paradis (Biology)
Dagmar Ringe (Biochemistry)
Nicolas Rohleder (Psychology)
Michael Rosbash (Biology)
Robert Sekuler (Psychology)
Piali Sengupta (Biology)
Gina Turrigiano (Biology)
Arthur Wingfield (Psychology)
Jutta Wolf (Psychology)

Requirements for the Major

A. All students majoring in neuroscience are required to take courses in the following four groups:

1. Core courses (two required courses)
2. Neuroscience electives (see Option I or Option II)
3. Basic science electives (see Option I or Option II)
4. Laboratory courses

Specific requirements for neuroscience and basic science electives are described below under Option I, leading to a BA in neuroscience, or Option II, leading to a BS in neuroscience. The core courses and the neuroscience and basic science elective courses that satisfy the requirements for the degree are listed in “B. Course Listings for Neuroscience Majors”.

Among courses offered to fulfill the requirements for the major, no course may be taken pass/fail and no more than one grade of D or D+ in a semester course will be allowed. A grade of D is not allowed for core courses. No D- will be allowed.

Option I: The BA Degree in Neuroscience
The standard neuroscience option is designed to provide students with a general background in neuroscience. In addition to the core courses required of all candidates, students must take six semester courses from the courses listed as neuroscience electives in "B. Course Listings for Neuroscience Majors" with at least two courses selected from Group 1 and two from Group 2. Candidates for the BA must also take at least nine semester courses listed as basic science electives in "B. Course Listings for Neuroscience Majors" of which at least three full semester courses (six half-credit courses) must be laboratory courses.

Option II: The BS Degree in Neuroscience
The BS program is an intensive neuroscience option designed to provide students with a strong background in neuroscience and associated areas. In addition to the core courses required of all candidates, students must take seven semester courses from the courses listed as neuroscience electives in "B. Course Listings for Neuroscience Majors" with at least two courses selected from Group 1 and two from Group 2. Candidates for the BS must also take at least ten semester courses listed as basic science electives in "B. Course Listings for Neuroscience Majors" of which at least three full semester courses (six half-credit courses) must be laboratory courses.

B. Course Listings for Neuroscience Majors

Core Courses
All students are required to take:

1. NBIO 140b (Principles of Neuroscience), the core course in neurobiology.

2. At least one core course in quantitative methods: BIOL 51a (Biostatistics), BIOL 107a (Data Analysis and Statistics Workshop), BIOL 135b (Principles of Biological Modeling), NBIO 136b (Computational Neuroscience), NPHY 115a (Dynamical Systems), PSYC 51a (Statistics), PSYC 210a (Advanced Psychological Statistics), QBIO 110a (Numerical Modeling of Biological Systems), or PHYS 105a (Biological Physics). A course taken to satisfy the quantitative method requirement cannot also count as an elective course.

Neuroscience Electives
Group 1: BIOL 149b (Molecular Pharmacology), NBIO 45a* (Cognitive and Neurobiological Basis of Memory), NBIO 123b (Population Genetics/Genomics), 136b (Computational Neuroscience), 142b (Sleep), 143b (Developmental Neurobiology), 145b (Systems Neuroscience), 146a (Neurobiology of Disease), 147a (Neurogenetics), 148b (Mechanisms of Neuronal Excitability and Plasticity), 150a (Autism and Human Developmental Disorders), 157a (Project Laboratory in Neurobiology and Behavior), NPHY 115a Dynamical Systems.

Group 2: NPSY 11b* (Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience), 12a (Perception: Human, Animal, and Machine), 16a (Motor Control), 17a (Hand and Brain), 22b (Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience), 120b (Man in Space), 141a (Stress, Physiology, and Health), 154a (Human Memory), 174b (Visual Cognition), 196b (Advanced Topics in Cognition), 197a (Advanced Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience), 199a (Human Neuropsychology).

Group 3: BCHM 100a (Introductory Biochemistry), 101a (Advanced Biochemistry: Enzyme Mechanisms), BIOL 14a (Genetics and Genomics) OR 22a (Genetics and Molecular Biology), 15b (Cells and Organisms) taken Fall 2013 or after OR 22b (Cell Structure and Function), 42a (Physiology), 50b (Biology of Behavior), 103b (Mechanisms of Cell Functions), 105b (Molecular Biology), 107a (Data Analysis and Statistics Workshop), 111a (Developmental Biology), 122a (Molecular Genetics), 124b (Epigenetics), 135b (Principles of Biological Modeling), QBIO 110a (Numerical Modeling and Biological System), 120b (Quantitative Biology Instrumentation Laboratory).

A student who has completed two courses in both Groups 1 and 2 may petition to substitute NEUR 99a and b (Senior Research) or NEUR 99a and 99e (Senior Research) for one of the remaining two courses. Please see "C. Senior Research and Honors Program" for specifics of the NEUR 99 offerings.

*NOTE: Either NBIO 45a or NPSY 11b may count towards the major, but not both.

Basic Science Electives
The basic science electives include BIOL 14a or 22a, BIOL 22b or 15b taken fall 2013 or after, BIOL 18a, BIOL 18b, MATH 10a, MATH 10b, and all courses numbered 10 and above in chemistry, computer science, mathematics, and physics that meet the requirement for that major. Courses numbered below 10 may not be included in this group. Two-credit laboratory courses are counted as one-half of a regular semester course and 4-credit laboratory courses will be counted as a full semester course. PHYS 11a,b or PHYS 15a,b is recommended over PHYS 10a,b.

Laboratory Requirement
The basic science elective requirement must be fulfilled with at least 3 full semester course credits of laboratory work.

All science laboratory courses, including project labs such as BIOL 155a and BIOL 159a can count toward the lab requirement. AP credit does not count toward the lab requirement.

Double-Counting Electives
No single course can be used to fulfill more than one requirement of the neuroscience major. For example: BIOL 14a or 22a and BIOL 22b or 15b taken fall 2013 or after may count toward either Group 3 electives or basic science electives, but not both. A course taken to satisfy the quantitative method requirement cannot also count as an elective course. Project labs can only count towards the BSE lab requirement or elective credit, but not both.

C. Senior Research and Honors Program
Seniors can receive credit for senior research in neuroscience by petitioning the neuroscience honors coordinator during the fall of their senior year. Candidates must enroll in NEUR 99a and 99b or 99e to carry out a senior research project and submit a thesis. Candidates interested in honors must state this in their petition and also present an oral defense of their thesis.

Special Note for Undergraduate Majors

The new set of requirements, as outlined above, take effect with the class entering Brandeis in the fall of 2012 and classes thereafter.  Current students who entered Brandeis prior to fall 2012 have the option of choosing to meet the old requirements, as stated in the Bulletin published the year of entry into Brandeis, or the new requirements, outlined above. Each student must choose one set of requirements or the other and will not be allowed to mix and combine the requirements.

Combined BS/MS Program

Undergraduate students majoring in Neuroscience may be admitted to a four-year BS/MS program upon recommendation by the faculty research sponsor and approval by the Neuroscience Undergraduate Advising Head and the Graduate School. BS/MS candidates must do senior honors research, i. e., take two semesters of NEUR 99 and receive departmental honors. Additional courses must be taken. The student must meet in their junior year with the Neuroscience Undergraduate Advising Head to receive approval to apply to the Graduate School for the BS/MS program. Application to the Graduate School must be made by May 1 preceding the senior year. For specific details about the BS/MS requirements, see http://www.bio.brandeis.edu/undergrad/neuro/bsms.html.

Special Notes Relating to Undergraduates

It is the policy of the neuroscience program to allow Advanced Placement exams to count for no more than two basic science electives for the neuroscience major. Please refer to the Advanced Placement chart for test score requirements. We recommend students who anticipate pursuing graduate work in neuroscience take additional math courses such as linear algebra or calculus of several variables.

Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

Program of Study
The program is designed to guide each student towards realizing her or his potential as a scientist and to foster their career development towards obtaining a position in research, teaching, or other scientific enterprises. Students are encouraged to become experts in the theory and practice of their chosen area of research, as well as to obtain breadth in other areas strongly represented in the program. Graduate courses are available in the areas of cognitive, computational, and cellular neuroscience.

Graduate students will be eligible for an MS in neuroscience by completing six graduate-level lecture courses in neuroscience, along with registering for and completing the appropriate Journal Clubs (NBIO306a/b or NBIO340a/b) in the first two semesters of the first year, the Graduate Student Research Seminar (BIOL 350a/b) in the first two semesters of the first year, and proseminar (NBIO250a) in the first semester. The six lecture courses must include NBIO 140b and one laboratory or research-based course, with the balance of courses to be agreed upon with the program advisor. The laboratory or research component can be met by the Laboratory Rotations (NEUR300a/b), a Project Laboratory (BIOL 155a, BIOL 156a, BIOL158b, BCHM155b, or NBIO157a), or Readings in Neuroscience (NEUR297a/b). Students who wish to fulfill this requirement through NEUR300a/b must obtain approval from the faculty member in whose lab the research is to take place. All students are required to take Responsible Conduct of Science (CONT 300b), usually offered in the spring.

Students must receive grades of B- or better in all courses and may be asked to leave the program at the end of a semester if their progress is found to be unsatisfactory by the graduate committee. Students wishing to be admitted to a second year of study must demonstrate adequate progress.

Residence Requirement
The minimum residence requirement for the MS degree is one year. Students may take an additional one or two semesters to complete the MS degree as an Extended Master's student with approval of the chair of the program.

Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

Program of Study
Students are expected to obtain knowledge of the principles and techniques in at least two of the areas represented in the program: cognitive, computational, systems, cellular, and molecular neuroscience. Students must take a total of six graduate-level courses for the degree, with two taken each semester in the first year. NBIO 140b (Principles of Neuroscience) is required and the five additional courses must be relevant to the student's area of interest, with at least one of these courses focusing on quantitative methods or approaches. First-year students must enroll in NBIO 250d (Neuroscience Proseminar) in the fall semester. All students are required to take CONT 300b, Responsible Conduct of Science, typically in the spring of their first year. In addition, first-year students will complete four nine-week rotations (NEUR 300a,b) in at least four different laboratories. Throughout all graduate years, students must register for and participate in Journal clubs (NBIO 306a/b) and register for and present yearly in the Graduate Student Research Seminars (BIOL 350a,b).

The suggested schedule of course work for the first two years is:

First Year
Fall: NBIO 140b, NBIO 250a, NEUR 300a, NBIO 306a, BIOL 350a, and one course selected from the neuroscience electives (typically NBIO 148b)
Spring: NEUR 300b, NBIO 306b, BIOL 350b, CONT 300b, and two courses selected from the neuroscience electives (typically NBIO 145b and NBIO 146a).

Second Year
Fall: NBIO 306a, BIOL 350a, and one course selected from the neuroscience electives.
Spring: NBIO 306b, BIOL 350b, and one course selected from the neuroscience electives.

At the end of the first year after completing rotations, each student will choose his/her specific field of interest and will apply for a permanent adviser, to be mutually agreed upon by the student and the faculty member. Exceptions to this timeline are subjected to review by the Graduate Committee. The adviser will assist the student in planning a well-balanced thesis-research program in his/her specific field of interest with the objective and expectation of publishing the work. In addition, the adviser will ordinarily serve as the chair of the student's dissertation examining committee.

Qualifying Examinations
The qualifying examinations consist of two written propositions with accompanying oral exams. One of these shall be based on the research completed in one of their rotation laboratories (to be completed by the end of May in the first year), and the other takes the form of a formal thesis proposal (to be completed in the beginning of the third year).

Teaching Requirement
As part of their PhD training, students act as teaching fellows for two semesters, typically in their second year.

Residence Requirement
The minimum residence requirement is three years.

Language Requirement
There is no foreign language requirement for the PhD degree. However, students for whom English is a second language are strongly recommended to take remedial English courses.

Advancement in the Program
To pass into the second year of graduate studies, the student must have grades of B- or better in all courses, have a satisfactory evaluation of the first proposition, and have found a laboratory in which to carry out thesis research. At the discretion of the graduate committee, students who do not fulfill all of these requirements after the first year may not be readmitted in to the program or may be placed on probation for one year. To pass into the third year and be admitted to candidacy, the student must have grades of B- or better in all six courses, have performed satisfactorily on both propositions, and be in good standing in the thesis research laboratory. Students who had been placed on probation for the prior year must have displayed progress and must perform satisfactorily on the second exam/proposal. Once thesis work has begun, each student must meet at least once a year with his or her Dissertation Committee to discuss progress toward the completion of the dissertation. These meetings must be documented with a form signed the thesis committee members and turned into the Biology office by the student. Progress will be reviewed by the graduate committee at the end of each year, and a student may be asked to leave the program if his/her progress is found to be unsatisfactory.

Dissertation and Defense
Each student will conduct an original investigation in the field of neuroscience under direction of their research advisor and write a dissertation of their results. After submission of the dissertation, the candidate will give a public seminar to the university community and then defend the work and its significance in an examination before a dissertation committee. The dissertation committee must include at least two Brandeis faculty members and one faculty member from outside the university. There is an expectation that students will publish two first-author research papers from their graduate work.

Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Neuroscience with Specialization in Quantitative Biology

Program of Study
Students wishing to obtain the specialization must first gain approval of the graduate program chair. This should be done as early as possible, ideally during the first year of graduate studies. In order to receive the PhD in neuroscience with additional specialization in quantitative biology, candidates must complete (a) the requirements for the PhD described above and (b) the course requirements for the quantitative biology specialization that are described in the quantitative biology section of this Bulletin.

Any alteration to the quantitative biology course requirements must be approved by the graduate program chair and by the quantitative biology program faculty advisory committee.

Courses of Instruction

(1-99) Primarily for Undergraduate Students

NBIO 45a The Cognitive and Neurobiological Basis of Memory
[ sn ]
May meet the requirements for the major in Neuroscience. Please see "Neuroscience Electives" under the Requirements for the Major in Neuroscience for further details or contact the Neuroscience department.
How does the brain store and recall memories? We will review studies that have elucidated the molecular, cellular, and network mechanisms involved. This provides insights to deficits in memory, such as Alzheimer's disease, and into strategies for improving memory. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Lisman

NEUR 93a Research Internship and Analysis
Supervised biological research experience in a Brandeis University laboratory. In consultation with a Brandeis faculty member, the student will design and execute an individual research project, culminating in an oral and written presentation. Students seeking to do neuroscience research in Brandeis laboratories outside the neuroscience program must obtain sponsorship of a neuroscience faculty member as well as permission of the neuroscience Undergraduate Advising Head (UAH). This course is not intended to and will not provide credit for off-campus internships. NEUR 93a is offered both semesters but is a one-semester course and may be taken only once and not before the fall of junior year. Students must petition the department for permission to enroll in NEUR 93a. Course requirements include laboratory research, a written report and an oral presentation, as specified in the NEUR 93a petition. Students wishing to do a summer internship for academic credit must: obtain permission from the neuroscience UAH and their neuroscience sponsor prior to commencing the internship; complete the summer internship (a minimum of 10 weeks full-time); and complete the appropriate academic work. Credit will be awarded via the student enrolling in NEUR93a in the subsequent fall term. NEUR 93a may also be used as one of the two courses needed for Senior Research (see NEUR 99). Usually offered every semester.
Staff

NEUR 98a Readings in Neuroscience
Usually offered every year.
Staff

NEUR 98b Readings in Neuroscience
Usually offered every year.
Staff

NEUR 99a Neuroscience Senior Research
The first semester of a two-semester course involving the student in an independent research project conducted under the supervision of a staff member and serving as an intensive introduction to specific methods of neuroscience research. Students should register for NEUR 99b for the second semester of research in the spring. In cases where students are able to do unusually long, intensive work in the laboratory, they may request a third course credit during the petition process; if this request is approved by the senior honors coordinator, students should register for NEUR 99a (fall) followed by NEUR 99e (spring). The combined enrollments for senior research may not exceed three semester course credits. To fulfill the NEUR 99 requirements, students must (1) submit to their research sponsor, at the conclusion of their first NEUR 99 semester, a paper that reviews the literature pertinent to their field of research, and (2) submit to their research sponsor, at the conclusion of their second NEUR 99 semester, a senior thesis that includes an abstract, an introduction, a review of materials and methods, results, discussion, and references. Usually offered every year.
Staff

NEUR 99b Neuroscience Senior Research
A continuation of NEUR 99a. See NEUR 99a for course description.
Staff

NEUR 99e Senior Research
See NEUR 99a for course description. Usually offered every year.
Staff

NPSY 11b Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisite: PSYC 10a (formerly PSYC 1a) or MATH 10a or permission of the instructor. May meet the requirements for the major in Biology. Please see "Category 2" under the Requirements for the Major in Biology for further details or contact the Biology department.
Data and theories regarding current conceptions of brain-behavior relationships. Begins with an introduction to neural systems as classically defined (sensory, association, motor, autonomic), and moves on to examination of the biological underpinnings of various behaviors, from those relating to basic drives (reproduction, feeding) to those with a cognitive flavor. Throughout, the accent is on interactions between organisms and environment (learning). Usually offered every year.
Mr. Katz

NPSY 12a Perception: Human, Animal, and Machine
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisite: PSYC 10a (formerly PSYC 1a) or MATH 10a or permission of the instructor.
Examines the human senses, emphasizing sight and hearing, studied from standpoints of anatomy, physiology, and psychophysics. Insights from the study of special observers, including developmentally immature humans, members of nonhuman species, and people with abnormal sensory systems. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Sekuler

NPSY 16a Motor Control
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisites: PSYC 10a (formerly PSYC 1a) or MATH 10a or equivalents, and at least sophomore standing, or permission of the instructor.
Surveys control of vertebrate posture and movement from various perspectives including muscle properties, reflex organization, central pattern generation, spatial representations, learning, and development. Emphasizes research in physiology, psychology, biomechanics, and computational theory. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. DiZio

NPSY 17a Hand and Brain
[ sn ss ]
Enrollment limited to neuroscience and psychology majors with a minimum of 3.3. GPA, or with permission of the instructor.
The specialized developments of the human hand and the parallel developments of the brain, tool use, sign language, and language acquisition are discussed. The control of voluntary movements is a key focus. Includes laboratory demonstrations. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Lackner

NPSY 22b Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisite: PSYC 10a (formerly PSYC 1a) or MATH 10a or permission of the instructor.
This course explores how the human brain makes the human mind. It covers neural and behavioral dimensions of attention, memory and learning, perception, motor control, plasticity and planning. Experimental approaches and neuroimaging are emphasized. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Sekuler

(100-199) For Both Undergraduate and Graduate Students

NBIO 123b Population Genetics/Genomics
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: BIOL 14a or BIOL 22a.
Overviews the causes and consequences of genetic differences between and within species. Introduces classical population genetics and modern genomics and explores their application to understanding the genetics of behavior and neurological disorders. Topics include DNA and RNA sequencing technologies and their application, pharmacogenomics, metagenomics, the microbiome, comparative genomics and studies of human traits. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Garrity

NBIO 136b Computational Neuroscience
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: NBIO 140b or PHYS 10a or approved equivalents.
An introduction to concepts and methods in computer modeling of neural systems. Topics include single and multicompartmental models of neurons, information representation and processing by populations of neurons, synaptic plasticity and models of learning, working memory, decision making and neuroeconomics. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Miller

NBIO 140b Principles of Neuroscience
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing, BIOL 15b or BIOL 22b, and one of the following. One year of college-level chemistry with lab, one year of college-level physics with lab, or any math course above 10a,b. AP scores are not accepted to meet the prerequisite.
Examines the basic principles of neuroscience. Topics include resting potentials, action potentials, synaptic transmission, sensory systems, motor systems, learning, neural circuits underlying behavior, neurological diseases, and mental illness. Usually offered every year.
Ms. Turrigiano

NBIO 142b Sleep
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: NBIO 140b.
Studies how we spend one-third of our lives asleep, but the function of sleep is essentially unknown. This course will explore via lecture and discussion of papers from the primary literature what we know about sleep in humans and other animals. We will discuss the behavioral, cellular and molecular control of sleep and its effects on physiology. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Griffith

NBIO 143b Developmental Neurobiology
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: BIOL 14a or BIOL 22a and BIOL 15b or BIOL 22b or permission of the instructor.
Discusses the molecular mechanisms used in the development of the nervous system in both invertebrate and vertebrate experimental systems. Topics include determination of neuronal cell fates, axon growth and guidance, plasticity during development, and mechanisms responsible for generation of connectivity in the nervous system. This course emphasizes reading of original scientific research papers and class discussion and oral presentations. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Paradis

NBIO 145b Systems Neuroscience
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: NBIO 140b.
Explores a fundamental question in neuroscience about how our brains extract and compute features and functions--such as direction of motion from visual stimuli--and how experience allows the microcircuits within our brains to become better tuned to such features. Understanding these processes requires insight into the cellular and network mechanisms that give rise to them. We will examine classical literature and recent advances in understanding the cellular and network properties of brain microcircuits. The course emphasizes reading from original papers, exploration of neural circuit simulations, and extensive class discussion. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Van Hooser

NBIO 146a The Neurobiology of Human Disease
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: BIOL100b, BIOL103b or NBIO 140b.
A lecture- and literature-based overview of the neurobiological underpinnings of neurological and psychiatric disorders including autism, mental retardation, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other developmental and degenerative disorders. Usually offered every second year.
Ms Rodal

NBIO 147a Neurogenetics
[ sn ]
Prerequisites: BIOL 18a and BIOL 14a or BIOL 22a.
Topics include function of genes, neurons and neuronal circuits in the generation of behavior. The use of genetics and genetic manipulations in the study of behavior will be emphasized. Model organisms to be discussed will include Drosophila, C. elegans, zebrafish and mammals.Usually offered every third year.
Ms. Sengupta

NBIO 148b Cellular Mechanisms of Neuronal Excitability and Plasticity
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: NBIO 140b or permission of the instructor. Graduate students may take this course concurrently with NBIO 140b.
Neurons are complex computing devises that transmit and store information. This course will explore the cellular and molecular mechanisms of excitability, as well as the plastic mechanisms that allow neurons and synapses to store information. Students will examine classic experiments on action potentials and synaptic transmission, as well as the contemporary literature on our evolving understanding of the cellular mechanisms of developmental and learning-related plasticity. The course emphasizes reading from original papers and extensive class discussion. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Nelson

NBIO 150a Autism and Human Developmental Disorders
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: BIOL 15b or BIOL 22b.
Autism and other developmental disorders are characterized by cognitive and behavioral deficits and by subtle changes in brain development. This course takes an integrative approach to investigate the biological, behavioral, medical, and social aspects of human developmental disorders. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Birren

NBIO 157a Project Laboratory in Neurobiology and Behavior
[ sn wi ]
Prerequisites: BIOL 18a and b, BIOL 14a or BIOL 22a, and BIOL 15b or BIOL 22b. A statistics class (e.g. BIOL 51a or PSYC 51a) is recommended but not required. Laboratory fee: $150 per semester.
Focuses on neurobiology, the study of the function of the nervous system. Research conducted by students will address unanswered biological questions in this field. This course will focus on temperature sensation and regulation, using the fruit fly Drosophila as a model system. Students will learn: techniques for studying animal behavior in a rigorous lab setting, experimental design and analysis, and the fundamentals of reading and writing scientific research papers. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Vecsey

NPHY 115a Dynamical Systems
[ sn ]
Prerequisites: MATH 10b and MATH 15a or PHYS 20a or equivalent.
Covers analytic, computational and graphical methods for solving systems of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. We study bifurcations, limit cycles, coupled oscillators and noise, with examples from physics, chemistry, population biology and many models of neurons. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Miller

NPSY 120b Man in Space
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisite: PHYS 10a (formerly PSYC 1a).
Topics include how orbital flight is achieved, spacecraft life support systems, circulatory dynamics, sensory-motor control and vestibular function in free fall, the physiological and psychological adaptations necessary in space flight, and how astronauts must readapt on return to Earth. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Lackner

NPSY 141a Stress, Physiology, and Health
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisites: NPSY 11b, NBIO 146a, PSYC 38a, or NPSY 199a.
About a third of all diseases in western society are related to stress. The study of psychosocial determinants of health is a growing field, in which biological and psychological research is combined to understand pathways between CNS processes and health. We will study these processes in this course. sually offered every year.
Mr. Rohleder

NPSY 154a Human Memory
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisite: PSYC 52a or NBIO 140b, or permission of the instructor.
Presents a systematic analysis of memory research and theory. The seminar will emphasize current research employing cognitive neuroscience methods, such as fMRI. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Gutchess

NPSY 174b Visual Cognition
[ oc sn ss ]
Prerequisite: NPSY 12a or permission of the instructor.
Higher-order processes in vision. Visual impact of cognitive and other top-down influences, including attention, expectation, plasticity, and learning. Focus on visual recognition, contour formation, segmentation, temporal binding, and face and object perception. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Sekuler

NPSY 196b Cognitive Neuroscience of Aging
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisite: PSYC 52a, NBIO 140a, or NPSY 199a.
This seminar covers current issues and research in memory, speech perception, and language comprehension. Emphasis will be placed on the current literature in the field. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Gutchess

NPSY 197a Advanced Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisites: NPSY 11b and NBIO 140b or permission of the instructor.
Covers current research and issues pertaining to the neurobiology of perception (focusing mainly but not exclusively on perception of chemosensory signals) as well as the neurobiology of simple learning. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Katz

NPSY 199a Human Neuropsychology
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisite: Psych 10a (formerly PSYC 1a) or Math 10a and at least sophomore standing.
Designed as an introduction to human neuropsychology. Topics include cerebral dominance, neuroanatomical mapping, and localization of function, with special reference to language, memory, and related cognitive function. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Wingfield

(200 and above) Primarily for Graduate Students

NBIO 250a Neuroscience Proseminar
Limited to first- and second-year neuroscience PhD students.
Required seminar for first- and second-year graduate students in the neuroscience PhD program. Discusses relevant papers from the current literature with an emphasis on increasing oral presentation skills, experimental design, and proposal writing. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Katz

NBIO 250b Neuroscience Proseminar
Limited to first- and second-year neuroscience PhD students.
Required seminar for first- and second-year graduate students in the neuroscience PhD program. Discusses relevant papers from the current literature with an emphasis on increasing oral presentation skills, experimental design, and proposal writing. Usually offered every year.
Staff

NBIO 306a Topics in Neurobiology
Usually offered every year.
Ms. Paradis

NBIO 306b Topics in Neurobiology
Usually offered every year.
Ms. Paradis

NBIO 340a Systems/Computational Neuroscience Journal Club
Usually offered every year.
Mr. Miller

NBIO 340b Systems/Computational Neuroscience Journal Club
Usually offered every year.
Mr. Miller

NEUR 297a Readings in Neuroscience
Usually offered every year.
Staff

NEUR 298a Independent Study in Neuroscience
Usually offered every year.
Staff

NEUR 300a Laboratory Rotations
Staff

NEUR 300b Laboratory Rotations
Staff

NEUR 301b Laboratory Rotations
Yields half-course credit.
Staff

NEUR 401d Dissertation Research
Independent research for the PhD degree. Specific sections for individual faculty members as requested.
Staff

Cross-Listed in Neuroscience

BIOL 135b The Principles of Biological Modeling
[ qr sn ]
Prerequisite: MATH 10a or 10b.
With examples from neuroscience, cell biology, ecology, evolution, and physiology, dynamical concepts of significance throughout the biological world are discussed. Simple computational and mathematical models are used to demonstrate important roles of the exponential function, feedback, stability, oscillations, and randomness. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Miller

BIOL 149b Molecular Pharmacology
[ sn ]
Prerequisites: BIOL 15b or BIOL 22b and CHEM 25a and b. NBIO 140b strongly recommended.
Covers the essentials of pharmacology and the study of the actions of chemical agents (drugs, toxins, neurotransmitters, and hormones) that interact with living systems. Emphasizes molecular mechanisms of neuropharmacology. Topics include pharmacokinetics, hormone action, autonomic pharmacology, and the psychopharmacology of drugs of abuse and mental disorders. Usually offered every third year.
Ms. Griffith

QBIO 110a Numerical Modeling of Biological Systems
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: MATH 10a and b or equivalent.
Modern scientific computation applied to problems in molecular and cell biology. Covers techniques such as numerical integration of differential equations, molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Applications range from enzymes and molecular motors to cells. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Hagan

QBIO 120b Quantitative Biology Instrumentation Laboratory
[ sn ]
Focuses on optical and other instruments commonly used in biomedical laboratories to make quantitative measurements in vivo and in vitro. Students disassemble and reconfigure modular instruments in laboratory exercises that critically evaluate instrument reliability and usability and investigate the origins of noise and systematic error in measurements. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Dogic

Required First-Year Graduate Health-Related Science Programs Course

CONT 300b Responsible Conduct of Science
Required of all graduate students supported on a sponsored project. Not for credit.
Ethics is an essential aspect of scientific research. This course, taught by university faculty from several graduate disciplines, covers major ethical issues germane to the broader scientific enterprise, including areas or applications from a number of fields of study. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Karel

Neuroscience Group 1

BIOL 149b Molecular Pharmacology
[ sn ]
Prerequisites: BIOL 15b or BIOL 22b and CHEM 25a and b. NBIO 140b strongly recommended.
Covers the essentials of pharmacology and the study of the actions of chemical agents (drugs, toxins, neurotransmitters, and hormones) that interact with living systems. Emphasizes molecular mechanisms of neuropharmacology. Topics include pharmacokinetics, hormone action, autonomic pharmacology, and the psychopharmacology of drugs of abuse and mental disorders. Usually offered every third year.
Ms. Griffith

NBIO 45a The Cognitive and Neurobiological Basis of Memory
[ sn ]
May meet the requirements for the major in Neuroscience. Please see "Neuroscience Electives" under the Requirements for the Major in Neuroscience for further details or contact the Neuroscience department.
How does the brain store and recall memories? We will review studies that have elucidated the molecular, cellular, and network mechanisms involved. This provides insights to deficits in memory, such as Alzheimer's disease, and into strategies for improving memory. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Lisman

NBIO 123b Population Genetics/Genomics
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: BIOL 14a or BIOL 22a.
Overviews the causes and consequences of genetic differences between and within species. Introduces classical population genetics and modern genomics and explores their application to understanding the genetics of behavior and neurological disorders. Topics include DNA and RNA sequencing technologies and their application, pharmacogenomics, metagenomics, the microbiome, comparative genomics and studies of human traits. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Garrity

NBIO 136b Computational Neuroscience
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: NBIO 140b or PHYS 10a or approved equivalents.
An introduction to concepts and methods in computer modeling of neural systems. Topics include single and multicompartmental models of neurons, information representation and processing by populations of neurons, synaptic plasticity and models of learning, working memory, decision making and neuroeconomics. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Miller

NBIO 142b Sleep
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: NBIO 140b.
Studies how we spend one-third of our lives asleep, but the function of sleep is essentially unknown. This course will explore via lecture and discussion of papers from the primary literature what we know about sleep in humans and other animals. We will discuss the behavioral, cellular and molecular control of sleep and its effects on physiology. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Griffith

NBIO 143b Developmental Neurobiology
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: BIOL 14a or BIOL 22a and BIOL 15b or BIOL 22b or permission of the instructor.
Discusses the molecular mechanisms used in the development of the nervous system in both invertebrate and vertebrate experimental systems. Topics include determination of neuronal cell fates, axon growth and guidance, plasticity during development, and mechanisms responsible for generation of connectivity in the nervous system. This course emphasizes reading of original scientific research papers and class discussion and oral presentations. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Paradis

NBIO 145b Systems Neuroscience
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: NBIO 140b.
Explores a fundamental question in neuroscience about how our brains extract and compute features and functions--such as direction of motion from visual stimuli--and how experience allows the microcircuits within our brains to become better tuned to such features. Understanding these processes requires insight into the cellular and network mechanisms that give rise to them. We will examine classical literature and recent advances in understanding the cellular and network properties of brain microcircuits. The course emphasizes reading from original papers, exploration of neural circuit simulations, and extensive class discussion. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Van Hooser

NBIO 146a The Neurobiology of Human Disease
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: BIOL100b, BIOL103b or NBIO 140b.
A lecture- and literature-based overview of the neurobiological underpinnings of neurological and psychiatric disorders including autism, mental retardation, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other developmental and degenerative disorders. Usually offered every second year.
Ms Rodal

NBIO 147a Neurogenetics
[ sn ]
Prerequisites: BIOL 18a and BIOL 14a or BIOL 22a.
Topics include function of genes, neurons and neuronal circuits in the generation of behavior. The use of genetics and genetic manipulations in the study of behavior will be emphasized. Model organisms to be discussed will include Drosophila, C. elegans, zebrafish and mammals.Usually offered every third year.
Ms. Sengupta

NBIO 148b Cellular Mechanisms of Neuronal Excitability and Plasticity
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: NBIO 140b or permission of the instructor. Graduate students may take this course concurrently with NBIO 140b.
Neurons are complex computing devises that transmit and store information. This course will explore the cellular and molecular mechanisms of excitability, as well as the plastic mechanisms that allow neurons and synapses to store information. Students will examine classic experiments on action potentials and synaptic transmission, as well as the contemporary literature on our evolving understanding of the cellular mechanisms of developmental and learning-related plasticity. The course emphasizes reading from original papers and extensive class discussion. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Nelson

NBIO 150a Autism and Human Developmental Disorders
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: BIOL 15b or BIOL 22b.
Autism and other developmental disorders are characterized by cognitive and behavioral deficits and by subtle changes in brain development. This course takes an integrative approach to investigate the biological, behavioral, medical, and social aspects of human developmental disorders. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Birren

NBIO 157a Project Laboratory in Neurobiology and Behavior
[ sn wi ]
Prerequisites: BIOL 18a and b, BIOL 14a or BIOL 22a, and BIOL 15b or BIOL 22b. A statistics class (e.g. BIOL 51a or PSYC 51a) is recommended but not required. Laboratory fee: $150 per semester.
Focuses on neurobiology, the study of the function of the nervous system. Research conducted by students will address unanswered biological questions in this field. This course will focus on temperature sensation and regulation, using the fruit fly Drosophila as a model system. Students will learn: techniques for studying animal behavior in a rigorous lab setting, experimental design and analysis, and the fundamentals of reading and writing scientific research papers. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Vecsey

NPHY 115a Dynamical Systems
[ sn ]
Prerequisites: MATH 10b and MATH 15a or PHYS 20a or equivalent.
Covers analytic, computational and graphical methods for solving systems of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. We study bifurcations, limit cycles, coupled oscillators and noise, with examples from physics, chemistry, population biology and many models of neurons. Usually offered every third year.
Mr. Miller

Neuroscience Group 2

NPSY 11b Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisite: PSYC 10a (formerly PSYC 1a) or MATH 10a or permission of the instructor. May meet the requirements for the major in Biology. Please see "Category 2" under the Requirements for the Major in Biology for further details or contact the Biology department.
Data and theories regarding current conceptions of brain-behavior relationships. Begins with an introduction to neural systems as classically defined (sensory, association, motor, autonomic), and moves on to examination of the biological underpinnings of various behaviors, from those relating to basic drives (reproduction, feeding) to those with a cognitive flavor. Throughout, the accent is on interactions between organisms and environment (learning). Usually offered every year.
Mr. Katz

NPSY 12a Perception: Human, Animal, and Machine
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisite: PSYC 10a (formerly PSYC 1a) or MATH 10a or permission of the instructor.
Examines the human senses, emphasizing sight and hearing, studied from standpoints of anatomy, physiology, and psychophysics. Insights from the study of special observers, including developmentally immature humans, members of nonhuman species, and people with abnormal sensory systems. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Sekuler

NPSY 16a Motor Control
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisites: PSYC 10a (formerly PSYC 1a) or MATH 10a or equivalents, and at least sophomore standing, or permission of the instructor.
Surveys control of vertebrate posture and movement from various perspectives including muscle properties, reflex organization, central pattern generation, spatial representations, learning, and development. Emphasizes research in physiology, psychology, biomechanics, and computational theory. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. DiZio

NPSY 17a Hand and Brain
[ sn ss ]
Enrollment limited to neuroscience and psychology majors with a minimum of 3.3. GPA, or with permission of the instructor.
The specialized developments of the human hand and the parallel developments of the brain, tool use, sign language, and language acquisition are discussed. The control of voluntary movements is a key focus. Includes laboratory demonstrations. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Lackner

NPSY 22b Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisite: PSYC 10a (formerly PSYC 1a) or MATH 10a or permission of the instructor.
This course explores how the human brain makes the human mind. It covers neural and behavioral dimensions of attention, memory and learning, perception, motor control, plasticity and planning. Experimental approaches and neuroimaging are emphasized. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Sekuler

NPSY 120b Man in Space
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisite: PHYS 10a (formerly PSYC 1a).
Topics include how orbital flight is achieved, spacecraft life support systems, circulatory dynamics, sensory-motor control and vestibular function in free fall, the physiological and psychological adaptations necessary in space flight, and how astronauts must readapt on return to Earth. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Lackner

NPSY 141a Stress, Physiology, and Health
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisites: NPSY 11b, NBIO 146a, PSYC 38a, or NPSY 199a.
About a third of all diseases in western society are related to stress. The study of psychosocial determinants of health is a growing field, in which biological and psychological research is combined to understand pathways between CNS processes and health. We will study these processes in this course. sually offered every year.
Mr. Rohleder

NPSY 154a Human Memory
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisite: PSYC 52a or NBIO 140b, or permission of the instructor.
Presents a systematic analysis of memory research and theory. The seminar will emphasize current research employing cognitive neuroscience methods, such as fMRI. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Gutchess

NPSY 174b Visual Cognition
[ oc sn ss ]
Prerequisite: NPSY 12a or permission of the instructor.
Higher-order processes in vision. Visual impact of cognitive and other top-down influences, including attention, expectation, plasticity, and learning. Focus on visual recognition, contour formation, segmentation, temporal binding, and face and object perception. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Sekuler

NPSY 196b Cognitive Neuroscience of Aging
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisite: PSYC 52a, NBIO 140a, or NPSY 199a.
This seminar covers current issues and research in memory, speech perception, and language comprehension. Emphasis will be placed on the current literature in the field. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Gutchess

NPSY 197a Advanced Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisites: NPSY 11b and NBIO 140b or permission of the instructor.
Covers current research and issues pertaining to the neurobiology of perception (focusing mainly but not exclusively on perception of chemosensory signals) as well as the neurobiology of simple learning. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Katz

NPSY 199a Human Neuropsychology
[ sn ss ]
Prerequisite: Psych 10a (formerly PSYC 1a) or Math 10a and at least sophomore standing.
Designed as an introduction to human neuropsychology. Topics include cerebral dominance, neuroanatomical mapping, and localization of function, with special reference to language, memory, and related cognitive function. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Wingfield

Neuroscience Group 3

BCHM 100a Introductory Biochemistry
[ qr sn ]
Prerequisite: One year of organic chemistry with laboratory.
Topics include chemistry, reaction, and metabolism of biologically important compounds; formation and utilization of "energy-rich" compounds; introduction to enzyme mechanisms; interrelation and comparison of basic biochemical and chemical processes; and metabolic regulation. Usually offered every year in multiple sections.
Ms. Westover

BCHM 101a Advanced Biochemistry: Enzyme Mechanisms
[ sn ]
Prerequisites: One year of organic chemistry with laboratory and BCHM 100a or equivalents.
Describes the principles of biological catalysts and the chemical logic of metabolic pathways. Discusses representative enzymes from each reaction class, with an emphasis on understanding how mechanisms are derived from experimental evidence. Topics include serine proteases, phosphatases, isomerases, carboxylases, and dehydrogenases. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Oprian

BIOL 14a Genetics and Genomics
[ qr1 sn ]
May not be taken for credit by students who took BIOL 22a in prior years.
Studies fundamentals of genetics, genomics, molecular biology and biological problem-solving. Topics include heredity, meiosis, molecular basis of phenotypic variations in individuals and populations, as well as an introduction to the tools and techniques used by past and current researchers in genetics and genomics. Usually offered every year.
Ms. Woodruff

BIOL 15b Cells and Organisms
[ sn ]
May not be taken for credit by students who took BIOL 22b in prior years.
Introduces contemporary biology with an emphasis on cells, organs, and organ systems. Topics include the forms and functions of macromolecules, organelles, and cells, the integration of cells into tissues, and the physiology of fundamental life processes. The course is intended to prepare students to understand the biology of everyday life, and to provide a strong foundation for those who continue to study the life sciences. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Simister

BIOL 42a Physiology
[ sn ]
Prerequisites: BIOL 14a or BIOL 22a and BIOL 15b or BIOL 22b. CHEM 25a and b are recommended.
Introduces basic physiological principles. Topics include the physiology of human nervous and endocrine systems, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, water and electrolyte regulation, digestion and absorption, reproduction, and immunology. Usually offered every year.
Staff

BIOL 50b Animal Behavior
[ sn ]
Prerequisites: BIOL 23a or BIOL 16a or BIOL 60b.
Examines a wide range of animal behavior, including mating and reproductive tactics, territoriality, and social behaviors. The course employs an ecological framework to understand the evolution of behavior. Usually offered every second year.
Staff

BIOL 103b Mechanisms of Cell Functions
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: BIOL 15b or 22b or BIOL 100b.
An advanced course focusing on the mechanistic basis of cell biological processes and how they are elucidated experimentally. Classic and modern research papers are used to illustrate a range of genetic, biochemical, and imaging-based experimental approaches. While topics include cell compartmentalization, membrane traffic, cytoskeleton, cell motility, and cell division, the primary learning goal is to understand how the scientific method is applied in cell biology research. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Goode

BIOL 105b Molecular Biology
[ sn ]
Prerequisites: BIOL 14a or BIOL 22a and BIOL 15b or BIOL 22b.
Examination of molecular processes in replication and expression of genetic information and techniques by which this understanding has been achieved. Topics include recombinant DNA and other molecular biological techniques, structure and organization of DNA in chromosomes, DNA replication, transcription and regulation of gene expression, RNA structure and processing, mRNA stability, and other mechanisms of post-translational control. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Marr and Mr. Lau

BIOL 107a Data Analysis and Statistics Workshop
[ qr sn ]
The interpretation of data is key to making new discoveries, making optimal decisions, and designing experiments. Students will learn skills of data analysis through hands-on, computer-based tutorials and exercises that include experimental data from the biological sciences. Knowledge of very basic statistics (mean, median) will be assumed. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Van Hooser

BIOL 111a Developmental Biology
[ sn ]
Prerequisites: BIOL 14a or BIOL 22a and BIOL 15b or BIOL 22b.
How do complex organisms build themselves starting from single cells? Examines how processes such as fertilization, embryogenesis, cell differentiation, and tissue-specific gene expression occur; what is known about the key molecules and genes that orchestrate these processes; and how genetic changes affecting these processes underlie the evolution of body form. Usually offered every second year.
Ms. Paradis

BIOL 122a Molecular Genetics
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: BIOL 14a or BIOL 22a.
A lecture- and literature-based course emphasizing strategies of genetic analysis in understanding complex processes, mostly in eukaryotes such as budding and fission yeast, fruit flies, worms, and mice. Examples will focus on the control of DNA replication, the regulation of the cell cycle and cell differentiation, and on mechanisms that preserve genetic stability and ensure accurate transmission of genetic information from generation to generation in both somatic and germ cells. Classical genetic methods and recent molecular genetic and genomic approaches will be examined. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Haber

BIOL 124b Epigenetics
[ sn ]
Prerequisites: BIOL 18a and b, BIOL 14a or BIOL 22a and BIOL 15b or BIOL 22b.
Our genes are much more than just DNA code. Our cells actually orchestrate multiple layers of gene expression control through alterations in chromatin structure. This course explores this dynamic layer of genetic control, called Epigenetics, where gene alterations can be inherited and reversed in response to the environment. Drawing on readings from the primary literature, this course explores how diverse epigenetic phenomena affect organism development, evolution, and human health. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Lau

BIOL 135b The Principles of Biological Modeling
[ qr sn ]
Prerequisite: MATH 10a or 10b.
With examples from neuroscience, cell biology, ecology, evolution, and physiology, dynamical concepts of significance throughout the biological world are discussed. Simple computational and mathematical models are used to demonstrate important roles of the exponential function, feedback, stability, oscillations, and randomness. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Miller

QBIO 110a Numerical Modeling of Biological Systems
[ sn ]
Prerequisite: MATH 10a and b or equivalent.
Modern scientific computation applied to problems in molecular and cell biology. Covers techniques such as numerical integration of differential equations, molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Applications range from enzymes and molecular motors to cells. Usually offered every second year.
Mr. Hagan

QBIO 120b Quantitative Biology Instrumentation Laboratory
[ sn ]
Focuses on optical and other instruments commonly used in biomedical laboratories to make quantitative measurements in vivo and in vitro. Students disassemble and reconfigure modular instruments in laboratory exercises that critically evaluate instrument reliability and usability and investigate the origins of noise and systematic error in measurements. Usually offered every year.
Mr. Dogic